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1/1  B  RARY 

Of    1LLI  NOIS 

Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2012  with  funding  from 

University  of  Illinois  Urbana-Champaign 

"It  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  situations  on  the  Ohio. 



First  Established  Methodist  College 

Walter  H.  Rankins 

Roberts  Printing  Company 
Frankfort,  Ky. 


Copyright  1949 
by  Walter  H.  Rankins 

Second  Printing  1957 
Copyright  1957 








To  the  Memory 

of  my 

Father  and  Mother 

Albert  Edwin  and  Emma  Taylor  Rankins 

who  had  a  prominent  part  in  the  educational  and  business  life 

of  Augusta,  Kentucky 


Only  a  farmer  or  a  farmer's  son  can  tell  you  why 
some  apparently  sleepy  town  often  exerts  an  influence 
for  miles  around  far  exceeding  that  of  larger  places. 

Augusta,  Ky.,  on  the  bank  of  the  majestic  Ohio 
River,  49  miles  southeast  of  Cincinnati,  is  such  a  town. 
The  old  houses  along  its  shaded  streets  have  peered 
down  on  the  passing  parade  of  great  historic  eras  in 
American  life,  and  have  sheltered  families  whose  sons 
have  influenced  the  destinies  of  whole  continents. 

Augusta's  old  houses,  stately  and  simple  in  style 
and  line,  have  stood  through  all  the  decades  since. 
Within  the  warm  color  of  their  old  red  brick  walls  was 
born  and  raised  a  galaxy  of  outstanding  sons  and 

Here,  too,  humbler  folk  —  itinerant  preachers, 
wandering  printers,  farmers,  merchants  and  families 
moving  from  Kentucky  —  crossed  from  Augusta  to 
Ohio's  fertile  regions  on  Boude's  Ferry,  just  as  the 
motorist  can  use  a  more  modern  version  under  the 
same  name  today. 

Augusta  has  always  been  one  of  the  most  pictur- 
esque of  the  Ohio  River  towns.  From  the  time  when 
the  river  served  as  the  great  migration  route  to  the 
Northwest  Territory,  it  has  always  been  a  good  place 
to  put  in  for  shelter  at  night,  to  take  on  supplies,  or  to 
ride  out  a  period  of  shallow  water. 

In  the  community's  150th  year  the  descendants  of 
the  settlers  who  first  came  from  Virginia's  Piedmont 
are  fulfilling  the  aspirations  of  their  pioneer  forebears; 
to  live  in  peace  amidst  beauty  and  plenty,  in  a  quiet 
and  gracious  corner  of  the  great  American  continent. 

Walter  H.  Rankins. 

June  20,  1957 
105  E.  Fourth  St. 
Augusta,  Kentucky 


It  is  not  easy  to  locate  historical  data  of  over  a  hundred  years  ago, 
or  to  verify  tradition  to  the  point  where  it  takes  form  as  historical  data, 
therefore  such  a  book  as  this  history  of  Augusta  College,  first  Methodist 
College,  could  not  have  been  written  without  the  gracious  assistance  of 
many  friends  to  whom  I  wish  to  make  acknowledgment  here: 

I  wish  to  thank  Miss  Marie  Dickore,  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  for  permission 
to  quote  from  her  article  on  Augusta  in  Tracks  (a  Chesapeake  &  Ohio 
Railroad  publication)  for  the  introduction  to  this  book.  I  also  am  most 
grateful  for  the  data  she  has  furnished  from  her  own  valuable  collection 
of  Americana  and  for  reading  the  manuscript. 

Mrs.  Ben  Harbeson,  Mrs.  Crawford  Gilkeson  and  Miss  Georgia  Har- 
beson  for  the  use  of  their  cherished  pictures  and  the  facts  concerning  the 
Bradford  and  Marshall  families. 

Mrs.  Alberta  Harvie  and  Mrs.  Robert  B.  Powers  for  their  help  and 

Mrs.  Mark  Helm  of  Indianapolis,  Indiana,  for  her  letter  from  Josiah 
K.  Lilly  about  Stephen  Foster's  visit  to  Augusta. 

Will  Rankins  for  relating  to  me  the  story  told  him  by  Senator  Joe 
Blackburn.  D.  B.  Cline  for  his  drawing  of  the  town  plat  from  town 
records.  The  Reverend  O.  S.  Crain  for  the  use  of  his  history  of  the 
Methodist  Church. 

Marshall  Crouch  of  Cynthiana,  Kentucky,  for  the  Ohio  River  pictures. 
John  E.  Thompson  for  his  technical  assistance. 

Fletcher  Hodges,  Jr.,  Curator  of  the  Foster  Hall  Collection,  University 
of  Pittsburgh,  for  his  comprehensive  directive  of  Augusta  College  and 
Stephen  Foster  material.  G.  Glenn  Clift,  The  Kentucky  Historical  Society 
and  the  Filson  Club  for  records  of  the  Augusta  College  and  of  Augusta, 
Kentucky.  Miss  Carolyn  Taylor,  of  Frankfort,  Kentucky,  for  an  article 
in  the  Family  Magazine,  of  1838. 

Mrs.  Alfred  C.  Worneweck,  a  niece  of  Stephen  Foster,  for  her  gracious 
permission  to  use  parts  of  a  letter  from  Mrs.  Foster  to  her  son,  William, 
relating  to  her  visit  to  Augusta. 

Especially  do  I  wish  to  thank  Dr.  J.  Winston  Coleman,  Jr.,  of  Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky,  for  reading  the  manuscript  and  offering  a  number  of  helpful 
suggestions  which  materially  improved  each  chapter. 

There  are  many  others  whom  I  wish  to  thank  for  their  invaluable 
help  as  I  have  sought  to  gather  the  scenes  and  events  of  the  past  and  to 
hold  them  as  an  unforgettable  memory. 



Preface 5 


I.    Situation  Acclaimed 13 

II.    Early  History  and  Pioneer  Schools 16 

III.  Augusta  College 21 

IV.  Battle  of  Augusta 51 

V.    Educational  Center  and  Cultural 

Surroundings 56 

VI.    Industrial  Period 58 

Epilogue 62 

Index 63 


"It  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  situations  on  the  Ohio" Frontispiece 

First  Court  Held  in  Augusta,  Dickinson  Morris  Home, 

— Between  Pages  16  and  17 

A  Building  of  the  Bracken  Academy,  Established  in  1798, 

— Between  Pages  16  and  17 

"Martin  Marshall  Homestead"  on  Riverside  Drive, 

— Between  Pages  16  and  17 

The  Ryan-Dunbar  Home,  one  of  the  earliest  in  Augusta, 

— Between  Pages  16  and  17 

Original  Building,  Augusta  College,  Augusta,  Kentucky, 

— Between  Pages  20  and  21 

Gen.  John  Payne,  Dr.  J.  J.  Bradford  Home  on  Riverside  Drive, 

birthplace  of  Laura  Bradford  Marshall Between  Pages  20  and  21 

An  Acrostic,  by  Rev.  Joseph  S.  Tomlinson,  D.D.,  President  of 

Augusta  College,  Kentucky Between  Pages  24  and  25 

"White  Hall,"  Ancestral  Home  of  Gen.  George  C.  Marshall, 

Augusta,  Kentucky Between  Pages  24  and  25 

"Echo  Hall,"  Dormitory  of  the  First  Established  Methodist  College 

in  the  World,  on  Frankfort  Street Between  Pages  32  and  33 

Diploma  of  Jacob  Best,  Augusta  College,  1838 Between  Pages  32  and  33 

Home  of  Rev.  Joseph  Tomlinson,  D.D.,  President  of  Augusta 

College   Between  Pages  32  and  33 

The  B.  F.  Power  Home  on  Elizabeth  Street Between  Pages  32  and  33 

Doorway  to  "Piedmont,"  Home  of  Dr  Joshua 

T.  Bradford Between  Pages  40  and  41 

College  Building  on  Bracken  Street  where  Hanson  Penn 

Diltz  wrote  "Hollow  Bracken" Between  Pages  40  and  41 


Marshall-Bradford  Home  on  Riverside  Drive. . .  .Between  Pages  40  and  41 

The  Doniphan-Felix  Home  on  Fourth  Street. . .  .Between  Pages  40  and  41 

Augusta  Female  College,  1852-1860 Between  Pages  48  and  49 

Home  of  William  J.  Rankins  and  Jane  Silverthorn 

Rankins  Between  Pages  48  and  49 

Augusta  Male  and  Female  College,  1868-1879 Between  Pages  48  and  49 

The  Cleveland-Harbeson  Home  on  Fourth  Street. Between  Pages  48  and  49 

The  Sylvanus  McKibben  Home  on  Williams 

Street    Between  Pages  56  and  57 

The  Augusta  Public  and  High  School.    A  large  Gymnasium 

has  been  added Between  Pages  56  and  57 

Knoedler  Memorial  Library Between  Pages  56  and  57 

Within  this  Row  was  the  Girls'  School  of  Miss  "Birdie" 

Blades  Between  Pages  56  and  57 

"Where  the  River  Runs  in  a  Direct  Course  for  Several 

Miles" Facing  Page  62 


Chapter  I 


Nestling  among  a  bower  of  trees  on  the  edge  of  the  Bluegrass  Region 
of  Kentucky  lies  the  town  of  Augusta.  "It  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  situa- 
tions on  the  Ohio,"  where  the  river  runs  in  a  direct  course  for  several  miles 
and  where  the  sunsets  send  a  riot  of  color  aloft  to  gild  the  clouds  against 
the  blue  of  the  early  evening  sky,  while  the  shadows  of  light  and  dark  sil- 
houette the  high  Kentucky  hills — and  as  the  day  closes  a  blanket  of  purple 
and  grey  envelops  the  low  rolling  Ohio  hills,  that  seem  to  extend  down  to 
the  very  water's  edge  of  the  river's  bend,  to  make  the  setting  and  the  scene 
one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  all  the  world. 

Early  travelers  acclaimed  the  beauty  of  the  situation:  William  Newton 
Mercer  wrote:  "  *  *  *  and  is  in  my  opinion  one  of  handsomest  towns  on  the 
river,"1  and  Zadok  Cramer  "attested  to  the  beauty  of  the  place."2 

Founded  in  pioneer  days,  Augusta's  influence  was  destined  to  extend  to 
the  remote  corners  of  the  earth. 

"As  early  as  June,  1773,  Robert  McAfee  left  his  company,  who  had 
reached  Limestone  Creek  (Maysville,  Ky.)  and  made  an  excursion  through 
the  contiguous  country.  Passing  up  Limestone  Creek  to  its  source,  he 
struck  across  the  dividing  ridge  to  the  waters  of  the  north  fork  of  Licking, 
and  proceeded  down  the  stream  some  twenty  or  twenty-five  miles,  and  then 
directed  his  course  over  the  hills  of  the  present  county  of  Bracken,  to  the 
Ohio  River.  When  he  reached  the  river,  he  ascertained  that  his  company 
had  passed  down.  Determined  to  follow  as  speedily  as  possible,  he  instantly 
went  to  work,  and,  with  the  use  of  his  tomahawk  and  knife,  cut  down  and 
skinned  a  tree,  and  constructed  a  bark  canoe,  which  he  completed  about 
sundown  on  the  same  day  of  his  arrival.  Committing  himself  to  the  frail 
craft,  he  floated  down  the  river,  and  on  the  succeeding  day — the  twenty- 
seventh  of  June,  overtook  his  company  at  the  mouth  of  the  Licking."3 

In  the  year  1775  a  party  composed  of  ten  men — Samuel  Wells,  Hayden 
Wells,   Thomas   Tebbs,   John   Tebbs,   John   Rust,   Mathew   Rust,   Thomas 

1  William  Newton  Mercer,  Diary — 1816,  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical 

2  Zadok  Cramer,  The  Navigator,  Pittsburgh,  1814. 

3  Lewis  Collins,  Historical  Sketches  of  Kentucky,  Maysville  and  Cincinnati,  Ohio, 
1850,  Page  453. 

14  Augusta  College 

Young,  William  Tripplett,  Richard  Masterton,  and  Jonathan  Higgs — came 
to  what  is  now  Bracken  County.1  They  stayed  only  a  short  time  as  the 
Indians  were  operating  out  of  the  Licking  River,  and  the  Miami  towns  were 
not  far  distant,  making  Bracken  County  untenable.  So  they  turned  back 
to  Limestone  (Maysville)  and  Washington  to  the  companionship  of  other 
parties  who  had  come  down  the  Ohio  and  had  located  there. 

These  men  had  found  in  Bracken  County  mute  evidence  of  a  great 
struggle  between  a  race  of  men  said  to  be  almost  of  giant  size,  traditionally 
called  White  Indians  (Welch)  and  the  American  Red  Indians.  The  Red 
Indians,  by  superior  numbers,  had  exterminated  their  foes,  and  the  site  of 
what  was  to  be  Augusta  had  been  probably  one  of  their  most  decisive 

A  letter  from  General  John  Payne  who  had  resided  many  years  in 
Augusta,  and  who  was  an  active,  brave,  and  efficient  officer  under  Harrison 
at  the  Mississinaway  towns,  and  on  the  north-west  frontier  during  the  last 
war  with  Great  Britain,  gives  the  following  interesting  account  of  the 
ancient  remains  discovered  in  that  place: 

"The  bottom  on  which  Augusta  is  situated  is  a  large  burying  ground  of 
the  ancients.  A  post  hole  cannot  be  dug  without  turning  up  human  bones. 
They  have  been  found  in  great  numbers,  and  of  all  sizes,  everywhere  be- 
tween the  mouths  of  Bracken  and  Locust  creeks,  a  distance  of  about  a 
mile  and  a  half.  From  the  cellar  under  my  dwelling,  sixty  by  seventy  feet, 
one  hundred  and  ten  skeletons  were  taken.  I  numbered  them  by  the  skulls; 
and  there  might  have  been  many  more,  whose  skulls  had  crumbled  into  dust. 
The  skeletons  were  of  all  sizes,  from  seven  feet  to  the  infant.  David  Kilgour 
(who  was  a  tall  and  very  large  man)  passed  our  village  at  the  time  I  was 
excavating  my  cellar,  and  we  took  him  down  and  applied  a  thigh  bone  to 
his — the  owner,  if  well  proportioned,  must  have  been  some  ten  or  twelve 
inches  taller  than  Kilgour,  and  the  lower  jaw  bone  would  slip  on  over  his, 
skin  and  all.  Who  were  they?  How  came  their  bones  there?  Among  the 
Indians  there  is  no  tradition  that  any  town  was  located  near  here.  When  I 
was  in  the  army,  I  inquired  of  old  Crane,  a  Wyandott,  and  of  Anderson,  a 
Delaware,  both  intelligent  old  chiefs  (the  former  died  at  Camp  Seneca  in 
1813) ,  and  they  could  give  no  information  in  reference  to  these  remains  of 
antiquity.  They  knew  the  localities  at  the  mouths  of  Locust,  Turtle,  and 
Bracken  creeks,  but  they  knew  nothing  of  any  town  or  village  near  there. 
In  my  garden,  Indian  arrow  heads  of  flint  have  been  found,  and  an  earthen- 
ware of  clay  and  pounded  mussels.  Some  of  the  largest  trees  of  the  forest 
were  growing  over  those  remains  when  the  land  was  cleared  in  1792. "2 

1  Land  Book — Mason  County,  Kentucky. 

2  Collins'  History  of  Kentucky.    Pages  209-210. 

Augusta  College  15 

"On  the  19th  day  of  November  1794,  the  King  of  England  at  his  palace, 
signed  the  treaty  of  peace  between  his  country  and  the  United  States  of 

"His  Majesty  will  withdraw  all  his  troops  and  garrisons  from  all  posts 
and  places  within  the  boundary  lines  agreed  by  the  treaty  of  peace.  This 
evacuation  shall  take  place  on  or  before  the  first  day  of  June  one  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  ninety-six  .  .  .  All  settlers  and  traders  within  the  pre- 
cincts of  jurisdiction  of  said  posts  shall  continue  to  enjoy  unmolested  all 
their  property  .  .  .  ni 

So  the  settlers  would  be  unmolested  and  they  could  found  their  settle- 
ments "where  they  will."    That  was  good  news. 

Captain  Philip  Buckner  had  acquired  this  site,  Augusta,  for  his  Revo- 
lutionary War  service  and  had  laid  off  the  town  in  lots,  streets,  and  alleys. 
And  in  the  October  2  issue  of  the  Kentucky  Gazette,  in  the  year  1795,  there 
is  an  account  of  a  sale  of  lots  at  public  auction  on  the  third  of  November,  six 
months  credit  for  one-half  of  the  purchase  money  and  twelve  months  for 
the  other  half;  and  Philip  Buckner's  Augusta  lots  changed  hands. 

There  came  to  this  part  of  Mason  County  many  of  the  most  prominent 
and  wealthy  families  from  the  towns  of  Washington  and  Limestone:  thus, 
Augusta  began  to  grow.  They  migrated  to  this  promising  location,  with  its 
fine  harbor  and  its  lovely  situation,  to  cast  their  lot  in  a  new  and  fast 
growing  part  of  the  county,  and  were  later  to  become  prominent  citizens 
and  early  trustees  of  Augusta. 

Kentucky  Gazette,  August  1,  1795. 

16  Augusta  College 

Chapter  II 


Bracken  County  became  a  county  on  December  14,  1796,  and  was  taken 
from  Mason  and  Campbell  counties. 

With  the  petitions  of  the  men  who  had  purchased  lots  and  had  located 
here,  an  act  was  passed  by  the  Kentucky  Legislature  for  the  establishment 
of  a  town  by  the  name  of  Augusta,  and  the  following  men  were  appointed 
trustees:  Francis  Wells,  Robert  Thome,  Robert  Davis,  James  Meranda, 
John  Boude,  John  Hunt,  and  Joseph  Logan. 

On  October  2,  1797,  at  the  request  of  Philip  Buckner,  these  trustees  met 
with  him  and  negotiated  for  the  six  hundred  acres  of  land  on  which 
Augusta  is  located. 

John  Hunt  and  William  Hord  went  the  security  of  the  trustees  in  the 
amount  of  one  thousand  pounds,  and  a  record  was  to  be  made  with  the 

The  second  meeting  of  the  trustees  was  not  held  until  the  fifth  day  of 
June,  1798,  at  the  home  of  Robert  Davis;  the  next  meeting  at  the  home  of 
Thomas  Broshiers  in  June  1798,  when  Vachel  Weldon  was  duly  elected  a 

The  following  men  were  early  trustees:  Nathaniel  Patterson,  David 
Starks,  Charles  McClain,  Dickinson  Morris,  William  Buckner,  Thomas 
Broshiers,  Robert  Schoolfield,  Philip  Ebert,  John  Sells,  James  Armstrong, 
John  Marshal,  James  Donovan,  John  Payne,  Dr.  George  W.  Mackey,  Abra- 
ham Patterson,  Robert  Smith,  John  Schoolfield,  Thomas  Nelson,  Samuel 
Thomas,  Dr.  Anderson  Keith,  John  Blanchard,  John  E.  McCormick,  David 
Davis,  Joseph  Morris,  and  Martin  Marshall,  Esq. 

Besides  the  trustees  the  buyers  of  lots  were  the  following:  Messrs. 
Brown  and  Beel,  Isaac  Meranda,  Goldsmith  Case,  David  Brunnel,  John 
Davis,  Samuel  and  William  Brooks. 

Not  only  were  these  men  hardy  pioneers  but  they  were  men  of  culture, 
education  and  refinement,  and  there  was  added  to  this  the  finest  of  Virginia 
womanhood  with  their  grace  and  charm:  families  of  Taliaferro,  Lee,  Keith, 
Marshall,  Doniphan,  Barker,  Myers,  and  Payne. 

And  on  this  account,  and  as  well  as  the  favorable  location,  an  act  was 
approved  by  the  Kentucky  Legislature,  December  22,  1798,  as  follows: 

"That  Philip  Buckner,  Nathaniel  Patterson,  Samuel  Brooks,  William 
Brooks,  John  Blanchard,  Francis  Wells,  Robert  Davis,  John  Boude,  John 


First  Court  held  in  Augusta,  Dickinson  Morris  home 

7,  ;, 

A  Building  of  the  Bracken  Academy  Established  in  1798 

"Martin  Marshall  Homestead"  on  Riverside  Drive 

The  Ryan-Dunbar  Home,  one  of  the  earliest  in  Augusta 

Augusta  College  17 

Fee,  John  Pattie,  and  Joseph  Logan  shall  be,  and  are  hereby  constituted  a 
body  politic  and  incorporate,  and  known  by  the  name  of  the  trustees  of 
the  Bracken  Academy." 

Thus  the  Bracken  Academy  became  a  part  of  Augusta's  life. 

A  very  imposing  series  of  buildings  was  erected  at  the  southeast  corner 
of  High  and  Elizabeth  Streets,  long  the  home  of  Mrs.  Bell  Myers.  There 
was  the  brick  building  on  Elizabeth  Street  with  a  series  of  low  wood  rooms 
as  a  dormitory,  fronted  by  a  continuous  portico  and  extending  to  a  large 
brick  two-story  building  for  classrooms,  and  situated  on  High  Street. 

On  June  5,  1799,  lots  were  again  sold  at  public  auction.  Joseph  A.  Smith 
was  the  auctioneer,  and  the  following  were  buyers:  Vachel  Weldon,  Na- 
thaniel Patterson,  Charles  McClain,  Robert  Davis,  Philip  Buckner,  Samuel 
Brooks,  William  Brooks,  Francis  Wells,  John  Blanchard,  Dickinson  Morris, 
who  was  also  the  clerk  of  the  sale.  These  lots,  comprising  almost  the  entire 
town,  sold  for  $2,519.25. 

Roads  began  to  be  opened  out  of  Augusta.  An  act  was  passed  opening 
a  road  from  Georgetown  to  Augusta.  "Whereas  it  is  represented  to  the  gen- 
eral assembly,  that  the  public  would  be  benefited  by  opening  a  road  from 
Georgetown  to  Augusta,  in  Bracken  County. 

"Be  it  enacted  by  the  general  assembly,  that  William  Henry  and  Rich- 
ard M.  Gano,  of  Scott  county,  Samuel  M'Million,  James  Caldwell  and  James 
Coleman,  of  Harrison  county,  and  William  Woodward  and  Philip  Buckner, 
of  Bracken  county,  be  appointed  commissioners,  and  are  hereby  vested 
with  full  power  to  cause  a  waggon  road  to  be  opened  from  Georgetown, 
through  Scott  county,  Harrison  county,  and  Bracken  county,  to  Augusta, 
having  due  regard  to  the  nighest  and  best  way;  and  should  any  person, 
through  whose  waste  land  the  said  road  should  be  viewed,  object  to  the 
opening  of  the  same,  the  sheriff  of  the  county  in  which  the  land  may  be, 
shall,  at  the  direction  of  the  said  commissioners,  summon  a  jury  to  meet 
upon  the  land  on  a  certain  day  in  the  commissioners'  order  mentioned,  who 
shall  be  qualified  to  ascertain  the  damages  that  may  arise  by  the  opening 
said  road;  and  the  road  shall  not  be  opened  until  such  damages  shall  be 
paid  by  the  commissioners.1 

"Upon  motion  George  W.  Mackey  to  postpone  the  opening  of  the  streets 
in  the  town  of  Augusta  until  the  first  day  of  November  next,  upon  the 
proposition  of  Philip  Buckner  to  obtain  the  establishing  of  a  road  from 
Ferry  Street  opposite  to  High  Street  to  intersect  the  road  to  Pendleton, 
May  1814." 

A  petition  to  open  a  road  to  Berlin  was  made  in  1822.  Augusta,  with 
its  roads  to  the  inland  towns,  with  its  harbor  so  well  located  for  an  easy 
access,  became  a  shipping  center  to  all  of  central  Kentucky. 

1  William  Littell,  Esq.,  The  Statute  Law  of  Kentucky,  Volume  III,  Frankfort, 
1811,  pp.  201-202. 

18  Augusta  College 

The  early  commercial  life  of  the  town  centered  around  the  market 
house,  a  commodious  building  for  these  early  days.  It  was  20  x  45  feet, 
the  floor  paved  and  the  house  enclosed. 

It  was  the  year  1814  and  the  laws  governing  the  operations  of  the  mar- 
ket house  were  of  necessity  hard  and  stringent. 

Some  of  them  were: 

"That  from  one  hour  before  sunrise  until  nine  o'clock  from  the  first  day 
of  December  to  the  first  day  of  March  and  from  half  an  hour  before  sunrise 
until  eight  o'clock  for  the  balance  of  the  year,  on  Wednesday  and  Saturday 
of  each  week  shall  be  the  time  of  market. 

"That  all  food  except  provender  for  cattle  or  horses  either  animal  or 
vegetable  shall  be  considered  articles  of  marketing. 

"That  no  person  shall  sell  or  buy  any  article  of  marketing  within  the 
limits  of  town  of  Augusta  except  at  the  market  house,  under  penalty  of 
$2.00  if  a  free  person  or  not  less  than  five  or  more  than  10  lashes  for  a  slave. 

"That  no  person  shall  sell  any  article  for  a  higher  amount  than  he  paid 
for  it. 

"That  any  free  person  or  owner  of  a  slave  may  pay  the  regular  fine  of 
a  slave,  and  thereby  the  penalty  of  lashes  will  be  revoked."1 

The  first  water  system  was  installed  by  John  McCormick: 

"Order  that  John  E.  McCormick  permitted  to  dig  a  well  in  the  town  at 
the  foot  of  the  hill  at  the  end  of  Main  Street,  provided  said  McCormick 
keeps  the  same  secure  and  not  injure  said  road,  only  while  digging,  per- 
mitted to  convey  the  water  to  his  own  house  by  pipes,  not  injuring  the 
street."     [July  1819.] 

And  the  first  recorded  business  house  was  that  of  David  Starks: 

"The  trustees  of  Augusta  will  Please  make  a  deed  for  the  house  and 
part  of  the  lot  to  David  Starks  where  his  hatters  shop  is  and  oblige  them. 
Philip  Buckner,  Oct.  26,  1799."2 

"Dr.  John  N.  Tomlinson  and  Dr.  Jonathan  Bradford,"  of  the  long  line  of 
the  noted  physicians  in  Augusta,  1833,  were  made  the  first  board  of  health; 
and  the  first  private  schools  were  those  of  Mr.  Henderson,  who  had  a  boys 
school  in  the  Town  Hall;  Richard  Keene,  a  graduate  of  Trinity  College, 
Dublin,  instructor  of  distinction;  and  Z.  Harmon,  an  English  gentleman, 
who  had  a  school  for  boys  and  girls. 

1  Official  records  of  the  City  of  Augusta,  Ky. 

2  Ibid. 

Augusta  College  19 

"Bracken  Sentinel,  Augusta,  Kentucky  —  9/2/1820 


The  Subscriber  takes  this  method  to  inform  his  friends, 
that  he  has  opened  a 


For  the  reception  of  Scholars,  in  that  spacious  house  of 
Captain  Buckner's,  in  Augusta. 

Terms  —  Three  dollars  per  quarter,  and  no  extra 
charges  except  only  for  wood. 

The  first  class  will  particularly  attend,  every  morning 
to  the  exemplifications  of  English  Grammar  according  to 
the  late,  easy  and  much  approved  method.  Therefore,  any 
one  whose  avocations  prevent  him  from  attending  all  day, 
can  have  the  privilege  of  this  class  during  their  exercises. 

The  late  improvement  received  under  some  of  the 
most  distinguished  teachers  in  the  United  States,  induces 
me  to  think  that  I  can  teach  a  pupil  more  in  one  month 
now  than  I  used  to  do  in  three. 


"N.B. — A  few  young  Ladies  or  Gentlemen  can  be  accom- 
modated with  Board  at  or  near  the  School — where  they 
can  be  forwarded  in  Geography,  with  the  use  of  MAPS, 
and  in  the  most  useful  Branches  of  English  Literature." 

In  1824  William  Buckner  gave  to  the  town  of  Augusta  all  the  streets 
and  alleys  in  Buckner's  Suburb  for  $1.00.  These  streets  and  alleys — his 
property — were  Water,  Second,  High  and  Mill  streets,  Tanyard,  Cherry, 
Vine,  Cedar,  Sycamore  and  Seminary  alleys.  And  a  plat  was  to  be  made 
showing  the  location  and  numbers  of  the  lots  as  now  constituted  the  town. 

The  first  ferry,  town  controlled,  was  across  the  Ohio  River,  in  1822. 

Augusta  was  at  one  time  the  county  seat  of  Bracken  County,  and  the 
county  court  met  in  a  building  located  on  the  Public  Square.  This  building 
was  erected  as  early,  or  earlier,  than  1824  and  was  destroyed  by  fire  on 
April  20,  1848. 

The  county  seat  has  been  moved  to  the  village  of  Brooksville,  near  the 
center  of  the  county. 

Plat  of  Augusta,  1824 


Augusta  College,  Augusta,  Ky. 

The  First  Established  College  in  Methodism.    Commissioners  appointed  1820. 

Chartered  by  Legislature  of  Kentucky,  December  7,  1822 

Building  erected  1825.  Building  destroyed  by  fire  1856. 


Gen.  John  Payne,  Doctor  J.  J.  Bradford  Home,  on  Riverside  Drive, 
the  birthplace  of  Laura  Bradford  Marshall 

Augusta  College  21 

Chapter  III 


The  most  important  and  far  reaching  event  in  Augusta's  early  history 
was  the  merger  by  the  trustees  of  the  Bracken  Academy  with  Conferences 
of  the  Methodist  Church  of  Ohio  and  Kentucky  to  found  the  Augusta 
College.    The  year  was  1822. 

The  Conference  from  Ohio  appointed  a  committee  consisting  of  Martin 
Ruter,  John  Collins  and  David  Young  to  confer  with  a  like  committee  from 
the  Kentucky  Conference.  This  committee  appeared  at  the  session  at 
Lexington.  The  Kentucky  Conference  was  favorable  to  the  proposition 
and  appointed  Charles  Holliday,  Henry  B.  Bascom  and  Alexander  Cummins 
to  consider  the  matter  with  the  Ohio  committee.  Their  report  heartily 
endorsed  the  proposed  union,  and  a  commission  consisting  of  Marcus 
Lindsay,  H.  B.  Bascom  and  William  Holman  was  appointed  for  the  Ken- 
tucky Conference,  to  carry  forward  the  negotiations.  They  went  to 
Augusta  and  succeeded  in  effecting  an  agreement  with  the  trustees  of 
the  Bracken  Academy.  Such  was  the  genesis  of  the  Augusta  College.1 
By  1825  the  Augusta  College  was  ready  to  receive  more  students  and  the 
trustees  thought  it  advisable  to  spread  some  information  about  its  plan, 
curriculum,  staff  of  professors  and  achievement.  An  advertisement  about 
the  College  in  a  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  newspaper  for  1825  is  quoted  here: 

"The  Trustees  of  Augusta  College,  having  been  ap- 
pointed to  the  superintendance  of  an  institution  intended 
expressly  for  the  liberal  education  of  youth  in  the  various 
branches  of  useful  science,  take  this  method  to  communi- 
cate to  the  public  some  information  respecting  its  situation 
and  prospects.  In  December,  1822,  an  act  of  incorporation 
was  obtained  from  the  Legislature  of  Kentucky,  and  a 
handsome  brick  building,  pleasantly  situated  upon  a  three 
acre  lot  of  ground,  has  been  commenced,  and  nearly  com- 
pleted. It  already  affords  ample  accommodations  for  a 
large  number  of  students,  and  will  be  in  a  short  time 
entirely  finished.  The  present  course  of  instruction  is  aca- 
demical, including  Latin,  Greek,  and  the  higher  branches 

1  W.  E.  Arnold,  A  History  of  Methodism  in  Kentucky  (Louisville,  1936),  Vol.  II, 
pp.  62-63. 

22  Augusta  College 

of  English  education;  and  is  conducted  by  the  Rev.  John 
P.  Finley,  A.M.  (Preparatory  Department) .  Another  pro- 
fessor will  in  a  short  time  be  employed,  and  so  soon  as  the 
fund  of  the  institution  shall  be  sufficient  for  the  purpose, 
the  Trustees  will  proceed  to  organize  a  full  faculty  of 
teachers,  and  establish  a  regular  and  complete  course  of 
collegiate  studies.  The  prices  of  tuition  are,  for  Latin  and 
Greek  languages,  $3.00  per  quarter,  and  for  higher  branch- 
es of  English,  $2.00. — The  prices  for  boarding  in  respec- 
table families,  are  from  one  dollar,  to  one  dollar  and  fifty 
cents  per  week.  The  College  is  now  open  for  the  reception 
and  instruction  of  students  in  the  above  branches,  and 
careful  attention  will  be  paid  to  their  morals.  The  Trus- 
tees and  friends  of  the  institution  are  determined  to  do  all 
in  their  power  to  promote  its  prosperity;  and  when  the 
moderate  price  of  tuition  and  boarding,  together  with  the 
various  advantages  of  the  establishment  are  considered, 
they  natter  themselves  that  it  will  receive  its  full  share 
of  public  patronage. 

Signed  in  behalf  of  the  Trustees, 

John  Armstrong,  Pres't. 
Martin  Marshall,  Sec'y. 

P.S.  For  the  further  information  of  the  public,  the  fol- 
lowing is  added  on  the  subject  of  raising  subscriptions. 
The  Kentucky  and  Ohio  Conferences  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  have  directed  subscriptions  to  be  opened 
in  all  the  societies  under  their  care  and  application  to  be 
made  to  individuals  in  both  states,  for  the  purpose  of 
increasing  the  fund  of  the  College,  and  when  it  is  consid- 
ered that  this  College  is  established  under  the  direction  of 
the  Methodist  Church,  according  to  the  express  advice  of 
the  General  Conference,  and  under  the  patronage  of  two 
annual  Conferences;  and  that  the  Trustees  intend,  so  soon 
as  their  fund  shall  be  sufficient  for  the  purpose,  to  have 
all  tuition  gratis,  it  is  confidently  anticipated  that  the 
members  of  the  Methodist  Church,  and  the  friends  of  the 
institution,  will  give  it  all  the  aid  in  their  power."1 

1  Zion's  Advocate  and  Wesleyan  Register,  Cincinnati,  O.,  Jan.  29,  1825. 

Augusta  College  23 

"Augusta  College,  one  of  the  best  literary  institutions  of  the  West  is 
located  here.  It  is  under  the  patronage  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
and  was  the  first  college  ever  established  by  that  denomination  in  the 

Cokesbury  of  Maryland  was  the  first  college  organized  by  the  Meth- 
odist Church  but  owing  to  a  disastrous  fire  it  was  in  existence  for  such  a 
short  time  that  Kentucky  historians  claim  the  first  established  Methodist 
college  was  at  Augusta. 

Dr.  George  Savage,  author  of  a  history  of  "Methodist  Institutions  of 
Learning  in  Kentucky,"  wrote  in  1889:  "On  Dec.  15,  1821  the  commissioners 
of  the  two  Conferences  met  at  Augusta  and  after  consultation  with  the  trus- 
tees of  Bracken  Academy,  they  jointly  determined  upon  the  establishment 
of  the  first  Methodist  College  in  the  world  at  Augusta,  Bracken  County, 
Kentucky,  under  the  title  of  Augusta  College." 

Dr.  Daniel  Stevenson,  a  president  of  the  Augusta  Male  and  Female 
College  and  a  professor  at  Centre  College,  in  an  extensive  survey  found  it 
to  be  true  that  the  Augusta  College  was  the  first  established  Methodist 
college  in  the  world. 

Thus  the  foundation  of  the  great  educational  system  of  the  Methodist 
Church  owes  its  beginning  to  Augusta. 

The  campus  occupied  several  acres  beginning  at  High  Street  and  ex- 
tending to  Water  Street,  where  there  was  its  largest  dormitory,  and  extend- 
ing over  Bracken  and  Frankfort  Streets.  The  College  buildings  were  sup- 
plemented by  other  buildings  in  the  town.  This  location  was  selected  on 
account  of  its  healthfulness,  beauty  and  facility  of  access  from  every  part 
of  the  country.  An  additional  inducement  was  the  offer  on  the  part  of  the 
trustees  of  the  Academy  to  appropriate  permanently  the  proceeds  of  a 
fund  of  $10,000  for  the  support  of  the  college. 

"Among  other  things,  the  Conference  of  1823  was  busy  with  a  report 
from  the  trustees  of  Augusta  College,  and  the  work  of  organizing  it  as  a 
college  was  in  the  near  future.  Eleven  delegates  to  the  ensuing  General 
Conference  were  elected,  viz:  Jonathan  Stamper,  John  Brown,  Charles 
Holliday,  William  Holman,  Peter  Cartwright,  Thomas  A.  Morris,  George 
McNelly,  George  C.  Light,  John  Johnson,  Richard  Corwine,  and  Marcus 
Lindsay."2  Peter  Cartwright  was  also  associated  with  the  founding  of 
three  institutions  of  learning  in  Illinois:  McKendree  College,  Illinois 
Wesleyan  College  and  the  University  of  Illinois.3 

"The  immediate  site  of  the  principal  edifice  is  a  gently  rising  ground 
of  several  acres,  commanding  a  pleasant  view  of  the  village,  river  and 

1  Collins,  History  of  Kentucky,  Page  210. 

2  W.  E.  Arnold,  Methodism  in  Kentucky,  Vol.  II,  p.  87. 

3  Dr.  John  Owens  Gross,  Christian  Advocate,  Feb.  20,  1936. 

24  Augusta  College 

surrounding  scenery  to  the  distance  of  many  miles  up  and  down  the  river. 
The  edifice  is  of  brick,  80  feet  by  40  feet,  and  three  stories  high,  including 
the  basement.  It  is  conveniently  divided  into  fifteen  apartments,  compre- 
hending a  chapel,  recitation  and  lecture  rooms,  literary  society  halls  and 
libraries,  college  library,  mineral  and  geological  cabinet  and  chemical  lab- 
oratory. Near  the  college  campus  are  two  refectories,  sufficiently  spacious 
to  accommodate  a  large  proportion  of  the  students." 

There  were  students  from  many  states.  They  came  by  stagecoach, 
horseback,  steamboat,  and  probably  ox  cart,  which  was  a  common  means 
of  travel  in  that  day. 

"From  the  time  the  institution  went  fully  into  operation  as  a  college 
the  annual  number  of  students  in  all  the  departments,  has  ranged  from 
130  to  170.  Besides  the  restraining  regulations  adopted  by  the  corporation 
in  regard  to  the  expenses  and  habits  of  students,  the  village  happily  pre- 
sents but  few  inducements  or  opportunities  to  indulge  in  vice  and  extrava- 
gance and  it  may  be  safely  affirmed,  that  there  is  no  place  of  the  same 
extent,  in  which  moral  and  religious  influence  is  more  decided  and  per- 
suasive. The  faculty,  through  their  secretary,  make  frequent  reports  to 
the  parents  and  guardians  of  students  in  relation  to  their  health,  habits  and 
proficiency,  with  a  view  to  secure  their  constant  co-operation  with  the 
college  authorities,  in  promoting  the  important  objects  for  which  sons 
and  wards  are  placed  in  the  institution."1 

"The  collegiate  year  is  divided  into  two  sessions,  the  first  commencing 
on  the  fourth  Monday  in  September,  the  second  on  the  third  Monday  in 
March  and  closing  on  the  first  Friday  in  August.  Terms  of  admittance  are 
$16.00  per  session  in  the  collegiate  and  $12.00  per  session  in  the  preparatory 
department.  These  fees  are  paid  in  advance.  No  extra  charge  is  made  for 
attending  the  class  in  Sacred  Literature.  The  classes,  however,  of  Modern 
Languages,  of  Fine  Arts,  and  the  Chemical  Lectures,  are  sustained  by 
Ticket,  for  which  the  Fee  is  paid  to  the  Professors  in  those  Departments 

"The  Public  Commencement  for  conferring  degrees  is  held  on  the 
third  Friday  in  August.  The  customary  price  for  boarding  in  the  college 
refectories  and  families  of  the  village  is  $2.50  per  week.  This  sum 
embraces  food,  washing,  lodging,  lights,  fuel  and  attendance. 

"The  college  is  well  supplied  with  mathematical,  chemical  and  philo- 
sophical apparatus  and  with  valuable  collections  of  mineralogical  and  geo- 
logical specimen.  On  chemistry  and  other  important  branches  of  natural 
science,  extended  courses  of  lectures  are  given,  attended  with  numerous 
appropriate  experiments.    In  the  department  of  Moral  Science  instruction 

1  The  Family  Magazine,  Cincinnati,  O.,  1838,  page  291. 

2  By-Laws,  Augusta  College.  Original  Catalog  is  in  the  possession  of  the  author. 


Kvcr  green   in  my   heart  shall  thy   memory  live. 
Lovely  vvife  of  roy  youth,  my  companion  and  friend: 
If  I    grieved  thee  io  aught,  thou  didst  meekly   forgive; 
Zealous  only  to  love  me,  and  love  to  the  end 

Ah!  how  bright  was  the  day  when  I  first  cill'd  thee  mine: 
Pure  the  bliss  that  entwined  eat  harts  irto  one; 
Real  plcasaro,  «•    hoped,  oe  our  path  would  o'er  shine. 
J-heo  down   to  old  age,  yea  to  life's  setting  sun. 

Soda  alas!  very  soon,  overca*1  was  oar  >kv; 
Toil,  care,  and   ill   health   turned   my   gladness  to  sloom: 
Often   then  did  thy   voice,  sweet  as  angel's  on   high, 
Needl'il  eoinfoit  impart,  rnd   my  darkness  relume. 

Cold,  although  thy  dear   form   lies  beneath   the  green   sod, 
\n\  shall   wake  never  more,  tilt  the  Judge   shall   appear; 
Methinks  though  thy  spirit's  at  rest   with  its  God, 
Pilgrim!  sometimes  it  whispers  me,  "be  of  good  cheer." 

Bleeds  afresh  nty  poor  heart,  at  the  thought  of  thy  uocs. 
Every  pang  thou  didst  suffer,  still  harrows  my   breast; 
Looking  up  to  thy  Lord,  thou  didst  mark  all  A>?  throes, 
Leaving  all  in  /<(*  hands,  thou  didst  tranquilly   rest. 

To  the  King  that   hath  ransouTd  and  taken  thee  bonne, 
On  the  bright  fields  of  bliss,  thy  dear  children  to  see. 
May   we  all  join  in  praise,  through  the  ages  to  come. 
LinkM   forever  in  euacurd,  near  life's  fadeless  tree. 

hi   my   pilgrimage  here,  be  it  always  ray   ami,— 
Noting  all  thy  blest  virtues,  thy  goodness  and  love, 
Sincerity,  friendship,  and  truth  e'er  the  same: — 
O.  again   would  1   pray,  be  it  always  my  aim, 
Nought  si  much  to  secure,  as  to  meet  thee  above. 

Octobkr,   lCi'2.  J.  5>.  'J'. 

Off     I 

^■M— ■ ■Ill Ill I ■Iiillli i Ill1— HM 

"White  Hall,"  Ancestral  home  of  General  George  C.  Marshall,  Augusta,  Ky. 

Augusta  College  25 

is  given  alternately  by  recitation  and  lectures,  that  the  particular  advantage 
of  each  mode  may  be  fully  realized  by  the  student,  and  in  order  that  the 
mathematical  course  may  be  rendered  as  available  as  possible,  the  classes 
in  that  department  are  frequently  exercised  in  the  field  under  immediate 
direction  of  the  professor. 

"In  addition  to  the  present  property  and  available  resources  of  the 
institution,  plans  are  in  progress  which  it  is  confidently  expected,  will 
result  at  no  very  distant  day,  in  its  ample  and  permanent  endowment. 
The  numerous  and  highly  respectable  bodies  by  whom  the  college  is 
founded  have  each  engaged  to  endow  a  professorship,  one  with  the  sum 
of  $10,000  and  the  other  with  a  sum  of  $14,000.  The  departments  to  which 
the  avails  of  those  funds  are  to  be  applied  are  denominated  The  McKendree 
Professorship  of  Moral  Science  and  the  Roberts  Professorship  of  Mathe- 
matics. Considerable  progress  has  also  been  made  in  the  endowment  of  a 
third  department,  with  a  sum  of  $10,000,  in  honor  of  Bishop  Soule  of  Ohio, 
who  is  also  president  of  the  Board  of  Trustees."1 

The  aims  and  purposes  of  the  College  are  set  forth  in  an  advertisement 
in  the  Cynthiana  Observer,  October  15,  1825,  of  a  new  newspaper  of  the 
Augusta  College,  The  Augusta  Chronicle: 

"This  Journal  is  to  be  edited  by  the  President  and  Professor  of  Augusta 
College,  in  Kentucky,  and  is  to  be  under  the  especial  patronage  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Conferences  in  this  State,  and  in  Ohio.  Its  objects 
are  of  the  highest  importance  in  the  interests  of  literature,  science,  politics, 
morals  and  religion.  Its  income  is  destined  to  the  support  of  the  rising 
seminary,  whose  trustees  must  belong  to  the  class  of  Christians  already 

"Though  our  College  is  destined  to  advance  the  cause  of  a  united  lit- 
erary and  religious  education  among  our  own  people,  and  to  raise  the 
standard  of  our  ecclesiastical  as  well  as  our  social  character,  yet  we  aim 
at  making  not  only  good  Methodist  Scholars  and  Christians,  but  to  con- 
tribute in  making  good  Scholars  and  Christians  for  every  department  and 
class  of  society.  Our  institution  emphatically  is  not  to  be  sectarian,  but  is 
earnestly  desirous  of  harmonizing  with  all  the  other  institutions  of  the 
State  and  the  West." 

Other  revenue  was  derived  from  the  Augusta  Herald  and  the  ferry 
rights  in  the  town, — its  greatest  investment  source  of  income. 

Colleges  were  rare  in  the  West  in  the  year  1820,  and  as  a  new  venture 
required  the  best  thought  and  talent,  careful  consideration  was  given  to 
the  selection  of  the  first  officers  and  teachers  of  the  Augusta  College. 

Rev.  John  P.  Finley,  of  Ohio,  had  been  appointed  to  the  Kentucky 
Conference  to  found  the  preparatory  department  and  later  was  in  charge 

The  Family  Magazine,  1838. 

26  Augusta  College 

as  President.  He  was  the  son  of  Rev.  Robert  Finley,  educated  at  Princeton, 
"and  as  the  main  building  had  been  erected  through  the  munificence  of 
Capt.  James  Armstrong,  a  layman  of  the  Methodist  Church,  with  the  aid 
of  a  few  friends,  the  preparatory  department  was  fully  organized  by 
August  1824,  when  Captain  Armstrong  died."1  But  he  had  lived  to  see  the 
fulfilment  of  what  must  have  been  a  great  desire  accomplished. 

John  P.  Finley  died  in  May  1825,  and  his  remains  rest  in  the  rear  of 
the  old  Methodist  Church  on  Riverside  Drive  in  Augusta,  where  have  re- 
sounded the  voices  of  so  many  eloquent  ministers.  James  Armstrong,  Esq., 
built  this  church  on  the  corner  of  Riverside  Drive  and  Bracken  Street  and 
paid  the  entire  cost  except  the  tinning  which  the  tinners  would  not  allow 
him  to  pay. 

When  the  Collegiate  Department  was  organized  in  the  year  1825,  Mar- 
tin Ruter,  D.D.,  of  Massachusetts,  was  made  the  President,  and  was  ap- 
pointed professor  of  oriental  languages  and  belles-lettres.  He  afterwards 
became  president  of  Allegheny  College  and  later  founded  the  first  Meth- 
odist College  in  Texas,  which  is  now  Southwestern  University. 

To  be  under  the  guidance  and  instruction  of  this  exceptional  man  was 
ample  reason  for  these  pioneer  boys  to  travel  such  long  distances,  under 
severe  hardships,  and  some  of  them  left  their  homes  as  young  in  life  as 
twelve  years  of  age.  It  was  this  background  of  courage  and  determination, 
as  well  as  a  vision  of  so  resplendent  a  future  that  has  made  America  great. 

Joseph  S.  Tomlinson,  A.M.,  D.D.,  professor  of  natural  philosophy  and 
chemistry,  who  was  pronounced  by  some  "the  ablest  debater  in  America," 
followed  Martin  Ruter  as  President  and  continued  as  President  until  the 
College  charter  was  revoked.  He  was  then  offered  the  presidency  of  Ohio 
University  but  declined  and  instead  became  a  member  of  its  faculty.  His 
brother  was  Dr.  John  Tomlinson,  a  physician  in  Augusta,  and  their  sister, 
Eliza,  and  her  husband,  William  Foster,  were  the  parents  of  Stephen  Col- 
lins Foster,  the  writer  of  so  many  lovely  American  folk  songs. 

Some  of  the  faculty  members  were:  Henry  B.  Bascom,  D.D.,  professor 
of  moral  science  (1831-1841),  the  great  Methodist  preacher,  later  a  bishop 
of  the  Methodist  Church,  chaplain  of  the  United  States  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives, and  president  of  Transylvania  University.  In  the  Louisville 
Conference  of  1845  he  took  a  most  prominent  part,  winning  for  himself 
the  title  of  "the  father  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South." 

John  P.  Durbin,  D.D.,  writer  and  traveller  and  "one  of  the  most  elo- 
quent divines  in  the  United  States,"  was  professor  of  languages  (1825- 
1831) .  He  was  chaplain  of  the  Senate  of  the  United  States  and  President 
of  Dickinson  College  (1834).  "He  is  regarded  as  the  greatest  head  the 
college  has  ever  known." 

1  W.  E.  Arnold,  A  History  of  Methodism  in  Kentucky,  Vol.  II,  p.  63. 

Augusta  College  27 

Frederick  Eckstein,  painter  and  sculptor,  an  important  figure  in  the 
history  of  Cincinnati  art.  Hiram  Powers,  the  sculptor,  was  at  one  time 
his  pupil.  Eckstein  was  schooled  in  the  Berlin  Academy  of  Arts  and 
Sciences  and  was  one  of  the  Academicians  of  the  Pennsylvania  Academy 
of  Fine  Arts.  When,  in  December,  1833,  he  came  to  Augusta  College  to 
teach,  his  salary  was  to  be  "$400  a  year,  besides  his  boarding,  and  he  would 
have  time  to  instruct  a  private  class  of  young  ladies  in  the  French 

Rev.  J.  M.  Trimble,  A.M.,  professor  of  mathematics.  He  was  the  son 
of  Governor  Allen  Trimble  of  Ohio. 

Rev.  B.  H.  McCown,  professor  of  ancient  languages  and  instructor  in 
Spanish  and  French. 

Herman  Johnson,  president  of  Dickinson  College  during  the  Civil  War. 
Rev.  Dr.  Simpson,  D.D.,  and  Mr.  McLeod,  instructors. 

Other  instructors  were  Frederick  A.  Davis,  M.D.,  professor  of  chem- 
istry and  botany;  Ira  Root;  Thomas  H.  Lynch,  later  a  member  of  the  faculty 
of  Transylvania;  John  Vincent;  E.  W.  Gray;  professors  Robbins,  Harrison 
and  W.  H.  Stewart;  Hon.  Francis  L.  Cleveland,  first  cousin  of  President 
Grover  Cleveland  and  the  father  of  Justice  Harland  Cleveland  of  Cincin- 
nati; Charles  Targowski,  professor  of  Modern  Languages  and  Fine  Arts; 
Mr.  McLeod  was  instructor  in  elocution  and  J.  L.  Kemp,  preceptor  of  the 
Academic  Department;  Mr.  A.  Chapman,  preceptor  in  the  Preparatory 
Department,  and  Mr.  Irwin,  teacher  of  the  Primary  School. 

Among  the  trustees  were  John  Chambers,  Governor  of  the  Iowa  Ter- 
ritory. Rev.  Joshua  Soule,  a  Bishop  of  the  Methodist  Church;  Martin  Mar- 
shall, Esq.,  a  widely  known  Kentucky  lawyer  and  a  cousin  of  Chief  Justice 
John  Marshall.  It  was  in  his  office  that  many  boys  studied  law.  He  was 
the  son  of  Rev.  William  Marshall  of  Mason  County,  Kentucky.  Martin 
Marshall's  son,  William  Champe  Marshall,  was  educated  at  the  Augusta 
College,  studied  law  in  his  father's  office,  was  a  state  representative  for 
several  terms  and  a  trustee  of  the  Bracken  Female  Academy.  He  was  the 
father  of  George  Catlett  Marshall  who  fought  as  a  boy  in  defense  of  his 
home  town,  Augusta,  during  the  Civil  War  and  later  became  an  important 
industrialist  in  Pennsylvania. 

George  Marshall  married  Laura  Bradford,  of  the  talented  Bradford 
family.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Dr.  Jonathan  J.  Bradford  of  Augusta, 
a  noted  Civil  War  doctor,  and  the  sister  of  Dr.  Thomas  Stuart  Bradford, 
a  prominent  Augusta  physician,  a  graduate  of  Jefferson  Medical  College. 

George  and  Laura  Bradford  Marshall  had  four  children:  William  S., 
born  in  Augusta,  who  died  when  a  small  boy;  Stuart,  who  was  born  at 
Samuel  Ewing's  estate,  "Meadowland,"  in  Pennsylvania,  and  graduated 

1  John  H.  James  Manuscript  Collection,  Urbana,  Ohio. 

28  Augusta  College 

from  Virginia  Military  Institute;  Marie,  born  in  Augusta  and  married  Dr. 
Singer;  and  George  Catlett,  Jr.,  born  at  Uniontown,  Pennsylvania,  a  short 
time  after  the  family  left  Augusta.  He  was  in  Augusta  when  a  small  boy 
and  again  at  the  age  of  seventeen,  just  before  entering  Virginia  Military 
Institute,  and  later  visited  at  the  home  of  his  uncle's  family,  Dr.  Thomas 
S.  Bradford  and  his  wife,  Margaret  Marshall  Bradford. 

George  Catlett  Marshall,  Jr.,  who  was  later  to  thrill  the  world  with  his 
military  genius,  was  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  United  States  Army,  and  has  held 
so  successfully,  in  one  of  the  most  critical  periods  of  American  history,  the 
most  important  diplomatic  position  in  our  government,  that  of  Secretary 
of  State  of  the  United  States. 

Other  wealthy  and  important  men  who  served  as  trustees  were:  John 
Armstrong,  Maysville;  Rev.  George  C.  Light,  Frankfort;  Gen.  John  Payne, 
who  entertained  William  Henry  Harrison  at  his  home  on  Riverside  Drive; 
Arthur  Thome,  Augusta;  George  Doniphan,  Augusta;  Squire  G.  Shropshire, 
Augusta;  Gideon  Minor,  Clermont  County,  Ohio;  Rev.  James  Savage,  Ger- 
mantown,  Kentucky;  Samuel  Lewis,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  Rev.  Oliver  M.  Spen- 
cer, Cincinnati,  Ohio,  a  Methodist  minister  who  served  in  the  Ohio  Militia, 
was  President  of  the  American  Bible  Society,  a  famous  writer,  and  a  civic 
and  religious  leader  in  the  Cincinnati  region;  Rev.  John  Meek,  West  Union, 
Ohio;  Francis  Landrum,  Augusta;  John  Todd,  Augusta;  Dr.  George  W. 
Mackey,  Augusta;  Alfred  Powell,  Augusta;  Marshall  Key,  Washington, 
Kentucky;  Rev.  Peter  Acies,  Louisville,  Kentucky;  Thomas  Ingles,  Sec- 
retary, Augusta;  Hon.  John  M'Lean,  Ohio;  Rev.  James  B.  Finley,  Ohio; 
Joseph  T.  M'Kibben,  Augusta;  Rev.  Francis  A.  Savage,  Minerva,  Kentucky; 
John  Mears,  Augusta;  William  Buckner,  Georgetown,  Ohio;  Dr.  John  F. 
Tomlinson,  Augusta;  William  C.  Marshall,  Augusta;  Thomas  Myers,  Au- 
gusta; Vachel  Weldon,  Jr.,  Augusta;  Joseph  Schoolfield,  Augusta;  John 
M'Dowell,  Portsmouth,  Ohio;  Nicholas  W.  Thomas,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  John 
McCleary;  George  Doniphan  of  Augusta;  Josiah  Lawrence;  Johnson  Brad- 
ford of  Augusta;  John  O.  T.  Hawkins,  and  Thomas  D.  Carneal  of  Cincinnati. 

With  a  faculty  of  such  eminence  and  trustees  of  wealth  and  influence  it 
was  only  natural  that  the  student  body  of  the  College  should  be  recruited 
from  the  most  prominent  families  of  Methodists  in  the  United  States,  and 
that  others  should  seek  this  college  for  the  education  of  their  sons.  And 
this  accounts  for  the  number  of  graduates  and  students  who  added  to  the 
intellectual  life  and  progress  of  these  early  days. 

Numbered  among  its  alumni  were:  Dr.  Randolph  Sinks  Foster,  son  of 
Israel  and  Polly  Kain  Foster,  who  became  President  of  Northwestern  Uni- 
versity, later,  pastor  of  St.  Paul's  Church,  New  York  City,  and  the  second 
President  of  Drew  Theological  Seminary;  Dr.  John  W.  Miley,  a  member  of 
the  faculty  of  Drew  Theological  Seminary;  John  Gregg  Fee,  who  cham- 

Augusta  College  29 

pioned  the  antislavery  cause  and  who  with  Cassius  M.  Clay  founded  Berea 

William  S.  Groesbeck,  internationally-known  financier  of  Cincinnati; 

Gen.  Durbin  Ward,  born  in  Augusta,  a  Union  officer  who  lost  an  arm  at 
Chickamauga  and  for  his  gallantry  won  a  high  honor.  He  became  a  United 
States  District  Attorney  and  served  in  the  Ohio  legislature. 

Dr.  William  H.  Taylor  was  in  the  College  at  its  closing.  He  had  gradu- 
ated from  Ohio  Wesleyan  and  from  Jefferson  Medical  College  and  with 
Dr.  T.  T.  Bradford,  assisted  the  famous  Kentucky  surgeon,  Dr.  Joshua  T. 
Bradford,  of  Augusta,  in  his  skilled  surgery. 

Benjamin  F.  Power,  who  helped  to  establish  the  tobacco  markets  in 
Cincinnati,  then  the  second  largest  in  the  world,  and  who  was  active 
in  making  Augusta  a  leader  in  the  prizing  and  shipping  of  tobacco  which 
was  the  wealth  of  so  many  prominent  Augusta  families.  The  leaders  were 
James  A.  Powers,  F.  L.  Powers,  P.  B.  Powers,  B.  S.  Rankins,  R.  P.  Hamilton, 
T.  S.  Hamilton,  William  Allen,  T.  H.  Armstrong,  James  W.  Jennings,  C.  E. 
Robertson,  Thomas  Weldon,  Reynolds  Hook,  and  J.  D.  McKibben. 

Other  prominent  alumni  were:  Joseph  Longworth  of  Cincinnati,  whose 
grandson,  Nicholas  Longworth,  was  Speaker  of  the  United  States  House  of 
Representatives,  and  whose  granddaughter  was  Clara  Longworth,  the 
Countess  de  Chambrun. 

Thomas  H.  Whetstone  of  Cincinnati,  who  was  the  first  President  of  the 
Union  Literary  Society. 

William  P.  F.  Hulbert,  a  successful  real  estate  and  business  man  of 
Cincinnati  whose  grandson,  Hulbert  Taft,  is  one  of  Cincinnati's  most  prom- 
inent men.  William  Hulbert's  daughter  married  Peter  R.  Taft,  a  brother 
of  President  William  Howard  Taft. 

William  H.  Wadsworth  of  Maysville,  Kentucky,  a  lawyer  and  member 
of  the  Congress  of  the  United  States. 

Thornton  F.  Marshall  of  Augusta,  a  lawyer  of  distinction  and  member 
of  the  Senate  of  Kentucky.  Although  a  Democrat,  he  cast  the  deciding 
vote  that  kept  Kentucky  in  the  Union. 

John  A.  Boude  of  Augusta,  a  well-known  lawyer  and  judge. 

J.  B.  Clark  of  Brooksville,  Kentucky,  a  lawyer  and  United  States  Con- 

Dr.  Philip  B.  Gatch  of  Ohio,  son  of  the  noted  pioneer  Methodist  preach- 
er, Rev.  Philip  Gatch. 

General  Alexander  William  Doniphan,  born  in  Mason  County,  Ken- 
tucky. At  the  age  of  nine  years  he  was  placed  by  his  widowed  mother 
under  the  guardianship  of  his  elder  brother,  George  Doniphan,  of  Augusta, 
"to  whose  care  and  kind  attention  he  acknowledges  himself  indebted  for  all 
his  attainments."  He  graduated  with  high  honors  from  the  Augusta 
College  in  1827  in  the  19th  year  of  his  age  and  was  licensed  to  practice  law 

30  Augusta  College 

in  1829,  having  read  law  in  the  office  of  Hon.  Martin  Marshall  of  Augusta. 
He  served  as  member  of  the  peace  conference  (1861)  Washington,  D.  C; 
member  of  Missouri  Legislature  several  terms,  and  was  a  hero  of  the 
Mexican  War.1 

Major  John  W.  Breathitt,  Hopkinsville,  Kentucky,  a  prominent  lawyer 
and  county  judge,  was  a  nephew  of  Governor  John  Breathitt  of  Kentucky. 

Silas  Field,  of  Missouri,  a  brother  of  Judge  Emmett  Field,  of  Louisville, 
Kentucky,  whose  father,  Larkin  Field,  was  an  eminent  lawyer.  His  cousin, 
Curtis  Field,  of  Richmond,  Kentucky,  also  was  an  alumnus.  These  men 
were  descendants  of  a  brother  of  the  progenitor  of  the  famous  Field  family 
which  included  Stephen  Field  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States 
and  Cyrus  Field  who  laid  the  Atlantic  Cable. 

Judge  Joseph  Doniphan,  who  studied  law  in  Martin  Marshall's  office 
and  served  in  the  Legislature  of  Kentucky  and  as  a  circuit  judge. 

Professor  J.  McDowell  Matthews  of  Pisgah,  Woodford  County,  Ken- 
tucky. The  degree  of  A.M.  was  conferred  on  him  by  the  Augusta  College. 
Minister  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  in  Virginia;  first  President  of 
Hillsboro,  Ohio,  Female  College,  and  nephew  of  General  Joseph  McDowell. 

James  Armstrong,  a  merchant  and  philanthropist,  whose  grandson, 
Stuart  Walker,  born  in  Augusta,  won  histrionic  fame  with  his  organization, 
the  Stuart  Walker  Players  of  Cincinnati,  Indianapolis  and  Hollywood. 

Dr.  Joshua  T.  Bradford,  one  of  the  eminent  physicians  and  surgeons  of 
Kentucky,  was  born  in  Augusta.  He  was  educated  at  the  Augusta  College 
and  was  graduated  from  the  famous  medical  department  of  Transylvania 
University.  After  completing  his  medical  studies  at  Philadelphia,  he  re- 
turned to  Augusta  to  become  a  celebrated  specialist  in  ovarian  tumor  and 
bone  surgery.  He  was  senior  Vice-President  of  the  "Kentucky  Medical 
Society"  in  1856,  and  was  a  delegate  to  the  National  Medical  Association, 
Washington  City,  in  1859.  "As  a  surgeon  he  ranked  with  Gross,  McDowell 
and  Dudley."2  A  former  major  in  the  United  States  Army,  he  commanded 
the  Home  Guard  at  the  Battle  of  Augusta. 

Judge  George  Huston,  Union  County,  Kentucky,  author  of  Memories 
of  Eighty  Years,  in  which  he  tells  of  his  student  days  at  the  Augusta 
College  and  of  his  experiences  during  the  Civil  War.  He  was  a  Harvard 

Robert  White  McFarland,  professor  of  mathematics,  and  afterwards 
President  of  Miami  University,  Oxford,  Ohio. 

Nicholas  B.  T.  Marshall,  a  graduate  of  the  class  of  1829.    He  was  an 

1  John  T.  Hughes,  Doniphan's  Expedition,  J.  A.  and  U.  P.  James,  Cincinnati, 
Ohio,  1848,  pp.  14-15. 

2  Kentucky.    A  History  of  the  State,  W.  H.  Perrin,  J.  H.  Battle,   and  G.  C. 
Kniffin.    F.  A.  Battey  &  Company,  Louisville,  Chicago:   1888,  p.  561. 

Augusta  College  31 

eminent  physician  and  a  member  of  the  faculty  of  the  Ohio  Medical  College 
at  Cincinnati. 

Gen.  William  Preston,  grandson  of  John  Preston  of  Virginia,  was  edu- 
cated at  Augusta  College.  He  served  in  the  Mexican  War,  in  the  United 
States  Congress,  as  Minister  to  Spain  in  1858,  and  as  Brigadier  General  in 
the  Confederate  Army  under  Gen.  A.  S.  Johnson,  who  was  his  brother- 

Judge  George  N.  Brown,  born  1822,  Huntington,  West  Virginia,  edu- 
cated at  Augusta  College,  went  to  Pikeville  and  was  interested  in  the 
Big  Sandy  Improvement  and  Development  project. 

Robert  J.  Poulson,  son  of  Major  Poulson,  represented  his  county  in  the 
Legislature  of  Virginia. 

Lewis  Van  Antwerp,  who  was  prominent  in  the  firm  of  Van  Antwerp, 
Bragg  &  Company,  book  publishers  in  Cincinnati. 

Charles  Grosvenor,  a  distinguished  congressman  from  Ohio  for  several 
years,  was  a  graduate  of  the  Augusta  College. 

Captain  A.  B.  French,  noted  river  showman,  owner  of  the  showboat, 
"New  Sensation,"  was  a  student  of  the  Augusta  College. 

Reverend  John  B.  Merwin,  D.D.,  who  was  a  minister  in  the  New  York 
East  Conference. 

Dr.  William  H.  McDowell,  M.D.,  one  of  the  most  loved  physicians  of 
Portsmouth,  Ohio.  During  his  funeral  every  business  house  in  the  city  of 
Portsmouth  was  closed. 

Milton  E.  and  Austin  M.  Clark,  brothers,  of  Brown  County,  Ohio, 
originators  of  the  Clark  and  Gruber  Mint  at  Denver,  Colorado. 

The  Hall  brothers:  Calvin  D.,  Alfred  J.,  William  C.  and  Thomas  J.,  Jr., 
of  Pendleton  County  who  joined  the  Confederate  Army. 

William  Paxton,  a  lawyer,  who  studied  law  in  Martin  Marshall's  office 
and  was  the  author  of  "The  Marshall  Family." 

There  were  two  main  literary  societies,  the  Union  and  the  Jefferson, 
and  they  played  a  large  part  in  student  activities. 

In  addition  to  the  regular  order  of  business,  the  procedure  of  weekly 
meetings  called  for  "Speakers  of  the  first  class,  Speakers  of  the  second  class, 
Writers  of  the  first  class,  Writers  of  the  second  class,  Anonymous  compo- 
sitions," and  the  debate  was  then  in  order.  There  were  regularly  appointed 
debating  teams  and  any  failure  to  produce  any  of  the  assignments  twice 
in  succession  drew  a  fine. 

They  had  their  society  libraries  and  there  was  also  available  to  mem- 
bers the  2500  volume  library  of  the  college  for  reading  and  research. 

A  wide  range  of  subjects  was  discussed  and  these  touched  on  many 
themes  in  the  gamut  of  human  emotions.    And  this  may  account  for  the 

32  Augusta  College 

large  number  of  theologians,  teachers  and  lawyers  whose  names  are  to 
be  found  in  the  alumni  lists  of  the  college. 

In  the  roster  of  the  Union  and  Jefferson  Literary  Societies  will,  no 
doubt,  be  found  many  noted  men. 


B.  F.  Ankeny,  Illinois;  William  Adair,  Tuscumbia,  Alabama;  J.  S.  All- 
breck;  W.  W.  Anderson,  Augusta; 

Prince  Bennett,  Michigan;  Karl  H.  Brooks;  J.  E.  Broadwell  of  Cyn- 
thiana,  Ky.;  F.  C.  Brooks,  Michigan;  Foster  H.  Blades,  Shelby  City,  Ken- 
tucky; J.  H.  Banks,  New  York  City;  L.  H.  Berry,  Newport,  Kentucky; 
J.  H.  Brown,  Brownsville,  Virginia;  J.  C.  Bland,  Vicksburg,  Mississippi; 
Joseph  Black,  Ohio;  E.  Bettas,  New  Carthage,  La.;  D.  DuBose,  Richardson, 
Louisiana;  William  Buckner,  Georgetown,  Ohio;  Duval  Payne  Boude,  Au- 
gusta; John  W.  Breathitt,  Hopkinsville,  Kentucky;  Granville  Barrere,  New 
Market,  Highland  County,  Ohio;  Judge  John  Boude,  Augusta;  John  Bonton, 
Brownsville,  Virginia;  Sam  C.  Curren,  Claysville,  Kentucky;  M.  B.  Cotton; 

F.  L.  Cleveland,  Augusta,  Kentucky; 

A.  M.  Clark,  Brown  County,  Ohio;  M.  E.  Clark,  Brown  County,  Ohio; 

G.  P.  Clark,  Augusta;  J.  B.  Collins,  Texas;  J.  W.  Cotton,  Memphis,  Tenn.; 
J.  T.  Cochrain,  Vicksburg,  Mississippi;  George  Cassiday,  Zanesville,  Ohio; 
Samuel  Carson,  Shelby  County,  Kentucky;  Thomas  R.  Colson,  Rushville, 
Ohio;  William  A.  Collard,  Augusta;  L.  A.  W.  Chalfant,  Felicity,  Ohio; 
A.  B.  Cook,  Vicksburg,  Mississippi;  David  Chiles,  Minerva,  Kentucky;  W. 
H.  Cougill,  Clark  County,  Maine;  Dr.  Ruben  H.  Carnal,  Alexandria,  Lou- 
isiana; J.  B.  Cotton,  Alexandria,  Louisiana;  William  Dacey,  Indiana;  M.  F. 
Damarat,  Portsmouth,  Ohio;  Abraham  Diltz,  Augusta;  G.  F.  Duke,  Ken- 
escha  Salines,  Virginia;  W.  A.  Doniphan,  Augusta; 

Henry  Edmondson,  Scott  County,  Kentucky;  J.  W.  Ellington,  Greenup 
City,  Kentucky;  W.  R.  Elliott,  Franklin,  Louisiana;  William  H.  Edwards, 
Liberty  Hall,  Kentucky;  James  B.  Fetstone,  Mayslick,  Kentucky;  R.  Folkes, 
Vicksburg,  Mississippi;  Curtis  Field,  Richmond,  Kentucky;  O.  H.  Field, 
Missouri;  Silas  H.  Field,  Missouri;  Benjamin  F.  Fox,  Natchez,  Mississippi; 
George  Grafton,  Pine  Ridge,  Mississippi;  William  S.  Gordy,  Louisiana; 
A.  Goddard,  Kentucky;  E.  P.  Gains,  Warrenton,  Mississippi;  O.  Griffin, 
Cincinnati;  Henry  V.  Gissan,  Augusta;  G.  W.  Groves,  Carthage,  Louisiana; 
William  Gibbons,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  William  S.  Gum,  Vicksburg,  Mis- 

W.  A.  Harris,  LaGrange,  Tennessee;  Thomas  Howell,  Augusta;  Edward 
Howell,  Maine;  Elijah  Howell;  Jas.  Humphrey,  Port  Gibson,  Mississippi; 
E.  W.  Hamilton,  Augusta;  Dana  Hubs,  Lawrenceburg,  Indiana;  E.  James, 
Louisiana;  Francis  Jordon,  Pennsylvania;  John  R.  Keith,  Augusta;  F.  D. 
King,  New  York,  N.  Y.;  F.  E.  King,  New  York,  N.  Y.;  F.  P.  King,  New  York; 

'Echo  Hall,"  Dormitory  of  the  First  Established  Methodist  College  in  the  World. 

Frankfort  Street 



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Diploma  of  Jacob  Best,  Augusta  College,  1833 



The  Home  of  Rev.  Joseph  S.  Tomlinson,  D.D.,  President  of  Augusta  College,  where 
Mrs.  Foster,  Henrietta  and  Stephen  made  a  visit  of  three  weeks  in  May,  1833 

The  B.  F.  Power  Home  on  Elizabeth  Street 

Augusta  College  33 

I.  W.  King;  John  H.  Locke,  Louisville,  Kentucky;  E.  M.  Lane,  Vicksburg, 
Mississippi;  I.  Locke,  Louisville,  Kentucky;  Henry  Lackie,  Alexandria, 
Louisiana;  H.  M.  Linney,  Harrodsburg,  Kentucky;  G.  W.  Leinn,  Baltimore, 

Alfred  Murray,  Bracken  County,  Kentucky;  Alfred  I.  N.  Myers,  Au- 
gusta; M.  C.  Martin,  Alexandria,  Louisiana;  W.  M.  Matthews,  Natchez, 
Mississippi;  W.  H.  Mackie,  Augusta;  Thomas  Morton,  Mason  County,  Ken- 
tucky; William  McDowell,  Portsmouth,  Ohio;  Josiah  M.  McKay,  Ports- 
mouth, Ohio;  H.  Moore,  Pittsburg,  Mississippi;  John  McConthy,  Trimble 
City,  Kentucky;  John  Muing,  Bracken  County,  Kentucky;  William  C.  Mil- 
ler, Millersburg,  Kentucky;  James  McNeal,  Grand  Gulf,  Louisiana;  George 
Marshall,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  C.  W.  Murphy; 

James  L.  Nash,  Louisiana;  W.  Nottingham,  Florida;  F.  Nash,  Attakapas, 
Louisiana;  G.  M.  Nash,  Jefferson  City,  Mississippi;  John  W.  Ovny,  Balti- 
more, Maryland;  Will  W.  Orr,  Augusta;  William  D.  Penyton,  Selamena 
City,  Tennessee;  W.  R.  Pierce,  Poplar  Plains,  Kentucky;  A.  Bruce  Porter, 
Kentucky;  J.  L.  Pogeke,  Naucarthaga,  Louisiana;  W.  C.  Purer,  New  Car- 
thage, Louisiana;  Elijah  C.  Phister,  Maysville,  Kentucky;  B.  W.  Payne, 
Augusta;  Thomas  Powers,  Augusta;  L.  Price,  Lexington,  Kentucky;  B.  F. 
Power,  Augusta; 

John  H.  Quinn,  Hillsboro,  Ohio;  O.  P.  Raynolds,  Kentucky;  Samuel  H. 
Rehy,  Washington,  S.  C;  William  Russel,  Wilmington,  Ohio;  E.  W.  Rob- 
ertson, Plaquemine,  Louisiana;  D.  L.  Ryan,  Mercer  City,  Kentucky;  Walter 
Ring,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  William  J.  Rankins,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  Job 

B.  Ranels,  Franklin,  Louisiana; 

Henry  A.  Shaefer,  Port  Gibson,  Mississippi;  John  Stock  well,  Kentucky; 
Milton  C.  Smith,  Mason  City,  Kentucky;  W.  M.  Soule,  Lebanon,  Ohio; 
Stephen  P.  Shaifer,  Port  Clinton,  Mississippi;  E.  W.  Smith,  New  Carthage, 
Louisiana;  John  K.  Smith,  Attakapas,  Louisiana;  Dr.  C.  S.  Savage,  M.D., 
Bracken  County,  Kentucky;  S.  H.  Sisson,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  F.  M.  Sell; 

C.  O.  Scott,  Alexandria,  Louisiana;  William  Salter;  Richard  A.  Stone,  War- 
ren, Mississippi;  Jonathan  Short,  Kentucky; 

Benjamin  Taylor,  Augusta;  L.  P.  Thomas,  Augusta;  John  G.  Tomlin- 
son,  Augusta;  C.  C.  Tomlinson,  Harrodsburg,  Kentucky;  W.  C.  Tomlinson, 
Augusta,  Kentucky;  Dr.  W.  H.  Taylor,  Augusta;  David  Thomas,  Augusta, 
Kentucky;  Osuet  H.  Vick,  Vicksburg,  Mississippi;  A.  Vandorn,  Port  Gibson, 
Mississippi;  William  Watson,  Hazen,  Mason  County,  Kentucky;  William  D. 
Williams,  Clarksburg,  Virginia;  W.  H.  Wadsworth,  Maysville,  Kentucky; 
W.  T.  Walker,  Fleming  County,  Kentucky;  Thomas  J.  Wilson,  West  Felici- 
ana, Louisiana. 

34  Augusta  College 


Ransom  Brooks,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  John  Bradshaw,  Shelby ville,  Ken- 
tucky; Aaron  Biddison;  W.  R.  Brown;  G.  Grading;  Fredrick  P.  Clay,  Frank- 
fort, Kentucky;  William  Campbell,  Cynthiana,  Kentucky;  James  R.  Clark, 
Brown  County,  Ohio;  Stephen  Cobb,  West  Feliciana,  Louisiana;  John  W. 
Cassett;  Thomas  Dobyns,  Mason  County,  Kentucky;  Joseph  L.  David,  But- 
ler County,  Ohio;  William  Dowsing,  Columbus,  Mississippi;  Charles  Dyas; 
Daniel  Evans;  L.  S.  Espy;  Jeremiah  H.  Foster;  D.  Florey;  William  S.  Groes- 
beck,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  S.  S.  Gray;  Prof.  E.  W.  Gray;  Jesse  Garlinghouse, 
Augusta;  S.  P.  Hall;  G.  M.  Hardwick,  Tuscaloosa,  Louisiana;  John  Height; 
W.  E.  Hinze;  William  F.  Jones;  Philip  Kennedy;  Josiah  Lamborn;  Robert 
Loving,  Nelson  County,  Virginia;  Wm.  B.  Lakin;  Jesse  Lock;  Edward 
Love;  Stephen  Lock;  W.  T.  Leener;  S.  L.  Leanord;  Alex  Mclntyre;  A.  L.  C. 
Magruder,  Jefferson  County,  Mississippi;  Samuel  Melvin,  Accomac  County, 
Virginia;  H.  McCasland;  B.  F.  Morris; 

Doctor  A.  H.  Pollock,  M.D.,  Bracken  County,  Kentucky;  David  Portes; 
Addison  Reese,  Cynthiana,  Kentucky;  John  Rees,  Georgetown,  Ohio;  John 
Roszell;  George  W.  Robinson;  J.  W.  Ricks;  Augustus  W.  Ruter,  Augusta, 
Kentucky;  Paul  Riggs;  Alexander  D.  Spencer,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  Thomas 
Simpson,  Adams  County,  Ohio;  W.  H.  Stewart,  Brown  County,  Ohio;  Sam- 
uel C.  Spencer,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  Thos.  Jefferson  Nicholas  Simmons;  J.  Sni- 
der; W.  L.  S.  Simmons;  I.  R.  Starkey;  P.  S.  Spawling;  William  G.  Starky; 
L.  F.  Vandene;  Stephen  Wood,  Adams  County,  Mississippi;  Isaac  Newton 
Williams;  William  R.  White  and  Henry  C.  Whitney. 

OTHER  STUDENTS— Partial  List 

Robert  Aldredge,  Tuscumbia,  Alabama;  James  Armstrong,  Augusta; 
Richard  H.  Anderson,  Green  County,  Kentucky;  Edward  L.  Anderson, 
Green  County,  Kentucky;  Joseph  H.  Anderson,  Vicksburg,  Mississippi; 
William  J.  Anderson,  Vicksburg,  Mississippi;  William  Bailie;  J.  H.  Bishop; 
A.  Bascom;  I.  S.  A.  Bradshaw;  R.  R.  Bailie,  Barker;  Jacob  Best,  Bracken 
County,  Kentucky;  D.  H.  Bishop;  Nelson  Barrere,  New  Market,  Highland 
County,  Ohio;  Spencer  J.  Ball,  Mason  County,  Kentucky;  William  I.  T. 
Buckner,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  John  T.  Bate,  Jefferson  County,  Kentucky; 
Erasmus  D.  Beach,  Hamilton,  Ohio;  Thomas  Carter,  Clinton,  Louisiana; 
Charles  Cabell;  John  L.  Carey,  Bridgenville,  Delaware;  Joseph  Chambers, 
Washington,  Mason  County,  Kentucky;  Joshua  A.  Clark,  Hayswood  Coun- 
ty, Tennessee;  William  P.  Cook,  Warren  County,  Kentucky;  L.  A.  Clinton, 
Louisiana;  Granville  L.  Cookrill,  Tuscumbia,  Louisiana;  Wallers  S.  Chew, 
West  Feliciana,  Louisiana;  Philemon  L.  Chew,  West  Feliciana,  Louisiana; 
George  H.  R.  Clark,  St.  Louis,  Missouri;  John  Cochran,  Brown  County, 
Ohio;  Alexander  C.  Crawford,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania;  Nailor; 

Augusta  College  35 

Adam  C.  Deem;  I.  C.  Damron;  Robert  V.  Davis,  West  Feliciana,  Lou- 
isiana; Robert  B.  Ellis,  Todd  County,  Kentucky;  Collins  Elliott,  Butler 
County,  Ohio;  Fredrick  Farrer,  Washington,  Mississippi;  Thomas  P.  Farrer, 
Washington,  Mississippi;  Asa  Foster,  Bourbon  County,  Kentucky;  Orvil 
Grant;  Abner  Green,  Jefferson  County,  Mississippi;  W.  P.  Grayson;  William 
W.  N.  Gibson,  Warren  County,  Mississippi;  H.  S.  Garland;  Davis  S.  Goodloe, 
Tuscumbia,  Alabama;  Henry  E.  Gill,  Mason  County,  Kentucky;  Gordon  R. 
Gilmore,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  George  J.  Griffin,  Hinds  County,  Mississippi; 
John  S.  Griffin,  Jefferson  County,  Kentucky. 

George  H.  Harrison,  Warren  County,  Ohio;  Thomas  L.  Haile,  St.  Fran- 
cisville,  Louisiana;  Matthew  Hopple,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  James  B.  Hinde,  Ur- 
bana,  Ohio;  Augustus  F.  Holton,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  William  P.  F.  Hulbert, 
Cincinnati,  Ohio;  William  P.  Hamilton;  J.  W.  Harmon,  Augusta,  Kentucky; 
J.  B.  Jackson;  William  Jones;  Charles  A.  Jones,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  William 
Johnson,  Humpsted  County,  Arkansas  Territory;  Moses  H.  Keener,  Ridge- 
ville,  Ohio;  Charles  R.  Kincheloe,  Nelson  County,  Kentucky;  Rodney  King, 
Adams  County,  Mississippi;  Richard  E.  King,  Adams  County,  Mississippi; 
William  B.  Lewis,  St.  Landry,  Louisiana;  James  Leigh,  Perquimans  County, 
North  Carolina;  Edward  Lawrence,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  Preston  Lodwick, 
Cincinnati,  Ohio;  John  Long,  St.  Francisville,  Louisiana;  George  Long,  St. 
Francisville,  Louisiana;  G.  W.  Leinn,  Baltimore,  Maryland; 

Sidney  H.  Monroe,  Falmouth,  Kentucky;  Nicholas  B.  T.  Marshall,  Au- 
gusta, Kentucky;  Thomas  A.  Marshall,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  William  B. 
Magruder,  Fluvanna  County,  Virginia;  Hillary  Magruder,  Fluvanna  Coun- 
ty, Virginia;  Thomas  G.  Mclntyre,  Franklin  County,  Mississippi;  William 
S.  Meek,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama;  Thomas  W.  Miller,  Scioto  County,  Ohio; 
Daniel  B.  Nailer,  Vicksburg,  Mississippi;  Stephen  E.  Nash,  Monroe  County, 
Mississippi;  Samuel  Nixon,  Loudoun  County,  Virginia;  John  H.  Oglesby, 
Madison,  Indiana;  George  W.  Dutten,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  John  W.  Pery- 
man;  Charles  M.  Phillips;  Baltimore,  Maryland;  William  Preston,  Louis- 
ville, Kentucky;  Henry  B.  Price,  Washington,  Mississippi;  J.  C.  Richey; 
Augustus  Robbins,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  Sam'l  Roszell;  John  R.  Power, 

Henry  L.  Rucker,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  Pascal  F.  Right,  Amelia 
County,  Virginia;  Stephen  S.  Rossel,  Washington  City;  William  H.  Rob- 
ertson, Mason  County,  Kentucky;  John  Rees,  Georgetown,  Ohio;  Charles 
Rabb,  Natchez,  Mississippi;  Luke  Robinson,  Cambridge,  Maryland;  Philan- 
der S.  Ruter,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  James  Ryan;  Chancy  B.  Shepherd,  Ma- 
tthews County,  Virginia;  Samuel  R.  Shakelford,  Amite  County,  Mississippi; 
William  B.  Smith,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  Joseph  W.  Sessions,  Adams  County, 
Mississippi;  Joseph  J.  B.  Southall,  Murfreesboro,  North  Carolina;  Samuel 
H.  Smith,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  Henry  Smith,  St.  Louis,  Missouri;  Samuel  A. 

36  Augusta  College 

Spencer,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  Francis  W.  Spencer,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  Lucien 
D.  Stockton,  Flemingsburg,  Kentucky; 

William  Schoolfield,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  Baldwin  H.  Spiker,  Winches- 
ter, Tennessee;  Caleb  L.  Swayze,  St.  Landry,  Louisiana;  David  M.  Stiles, 
Claibourn  County,  Mississippi;  William  M.  Stiles,  Claibourn  County,  Mis- 
sissippi; Glenn  G.  Stoudemire,  Louisville,  Alabama;  Joseph  P.  Sanford, 
Baltimore,  Maryland;  James  A.  Thome,  Augusta,  Kentucky;  John  H. 
Thomas,  Wilkinson  County,  Mississippi;  Charles  W.  Thorp,  Cincinnati, 
Ohio;  James  L.  Thorp,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  George  Tribbey,  Augusta,  Ken- 
tucky; John  Vincent; 

Richard  A.  Whetstone,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  Benjamin  Whiteman,  Green 
County,  Ohio;  Stephen  T.  Wood,  Adams  County,  Mississippi;  Peter  G. 
Winn,  Claysville,  Kentucky;  William  Wayland,  Batavia,  Ohio;  George  R. 
Waters,  Bracken  County,  Kentucky;  William  Watts,  Maysville,  Kentucky; 
Alexander  H.  Whitney,  Jefferson  County,  Mississippi;  Silas  Woods,  Leb- 
anon, Ohio;  Charles  W.  Walden,  Cincinnati,  Ohio.1 

The  college  papers  of  the  literary  societies  were:  The  Jefferson  Chron- 
icle, Friday  Courier,  and  The  Evening  Herald. 

These  men  gave  special  lectures  before  the  Literary  Societies:  Rev.  Dr. 
Tefft;  Judge  McLean;  Dr.  Thompson;  Rev.  W.  I.  Fee  of  Ohio;  Dr.  McCullom, 
who  often  "appeared  in  the  hall"  and  was  always  "invited  into  the  room" 
to  give  an  interesting  biological  lecture. 

Dr.  Charles  Caldwell,  M.D.,  a  professor  in  the  famous  Medical  Depart- 
ment of  Transylvania  University.  He  was  also  a  writer  and  delivered 
several  lectures  to  the  Jefferson  Society  of  the  Augusta  College.  Dr.  Cald- 
well had  been  made  an  honorary  member  of  this  Society,  July  21,  1848. 
Spread  on  the  minutes  of  the  October  27,  1848  meeting  of  the  Society  is  this 
information:  "A  motion  made  and  carried  to  instruct  the  treasurer  to  send 
twenty  five  dollars  to  Dr.  Caldwell  to  pay  in  part  for  the  publication  of  his 
address.  A  note  being  read  from  Samuel  Garrett,  book  merchant  at  Cin- 
cinnati, stating  that  he  would  take  some  25  copies  of  said  address  and  do 
the  best  he  could  with  [them]." 

JEFFERSON  SOCIETY:  March  23rd,  1832.  "Motion  was  then  made  to 
appoint  five  to  meet  a  committee  from  the  Union  Society  to  request  the 
Hon.  Henry  Clay  to  address  the  two  societies  on  the  next  commencement." 

The  records  show  that  the  faculty  of  the  College,  including  Dr.  Ruter, 
were  honorary  members  of  the  societies  and  took  part  in  the  debates. 

In  the  societies  quills  were  used  for  pens  and  fat  was  preferred  to  oil 
in  lamps.  "On  Jan.  14th  the  treasurer  was  instructed  to  purchase  a  pair  of 

1  Minutes  of  the  Union  and  Jefferson  Literary  Societies.    Original  in  possession 
of  the  author. 

Augusta  College  37 

"The  days  of  College  prosperity  were  the  days  of  Augusta's  renown 
and  greatest  prosperity."1 

"It  was  a  center  on  which  all  eyes  from  all  parts  of  North  and  South, 
East  and  West  looked  with  an  interest;  for  there  were  congregated  some  of 
the  great  lights  of  the  church  as  scholars,  divines  and  orators,  and  they 
were  going  out,  the  educated  sons  of  the  church,  to  make  their  impress 
upon  society  in  after  years."2 

The  homes  and  the  hearts  of  this  cultured  little  town  were  opened  to 
the  students,  and  the  gaiety  of  many  social  events  in  these  lovely  old  homes 
can  be  visualized.  The  college  building  on  Bracken  Street,  with  its  colonial 
stairway,  its  large  stately  rooms,  no  doubt,  was  the  scene  of  many  brilliant 
social  events.  Yet  the  seriousness  and  close  comradeship  that  abounds  in 
colleges  of  this  type  (for  it  was  typical  of  the  early  English  schools)  are 
apparent  from  this  one  incident  of  a  Cincinnati  boy. 

"Meeting  Extraordinary  June  9th.,  1831" 

"By  order  of  the  President  the  Society  met  in  order  to  consult  what 
would  be  the  most  suitable  manner  of  manifesting  their  sorrow  and  regret 
for  the  demise  of  one  of  their  honored  and  respected  members,  Mr.  Ramson 
Brooks,  one  whose  social  virtues,  moral  conduct,  and  accomplished  talents 
entitle  his  memory  to  be  perpetuated  in  the  hearts  of  his  fellow  members 
and  deeply  impressed  on  their  fondest  recollections.  After  the  president 
had  stated  the  object  of  the  meeting  the  following  resolution  was  intro- 
duced by  Mr.  Portis  and  immediately  adopted  by  the  House:  'Resolved 
unanimously,  that  the  members  of  the  Jeff.  Society,  in  commemoration  of 
their  departed  friend  and  fellow  member  R.  Brooks,  wear  crape  on  their 
left  arms  for  thirty  days.'  Mr.  Rozel  was  appointed  to  inform  by  letter, 
the  Rev.  Brooks  of  the  proceedings  of  this  society  with  respect  to  his  son. 
Mr.  Melvin  was  selected  by  the  House  to  purchase  and  distribute  the  crape 
necessary  for  each  member.  There  being  no  other  business  the  House  was 

"Sam'l  Smith,  President 
"W.  H.  Stewart,  Secretary" 

Strict  discipline  was  required,  in  these  early  days,  and  the  right  of  free 
speech  was  seemingly  denied — as  witnessed  in  the  following  trial  of  Josiah 

"August  5th  1829— Jefferson  Society 

The  Society  met  persuant  to  adjournment — the  role  being  called,  the 
Prosecutor  of  the  Society  arraigned  before  the  members,  Josiah  Lamborn 

1  J.  W.  Cunningham — Newport,  Kentucky,   1869. 

2  Ibid. 

38  Augusta  College 

for  certain  offences  against  the  dignity  of  the  Society  contained  in  the  fol- 
lowing prosecution,    (viz) 

Jefferson  Society 
Augusta  College 

Whereas  it  hath  been  represented  to  us  by  certain  individuals,  belonging  to 
this  Jefferson  Society,  that  Josiah  Lamborn,  a  member  of  the  said  Society, 
hath  wilfully  and  without  any  regard  for  the  dignity  of  this  Society,  ex- 
pressed himself  in  a  manner  degrading  to  the  standing  and  contrary  to  the 
laws  laid  down  in  the  constitution  of  said  Society. 

Therefore  I  Thos  P.  Haille,  by  the  powers  invested  in  me,  as  Prosecutor  in 
behalf  of  the  Society  aforesaid  and  agreeable  to  the  Constitution  in  such 
cases  made  and  provided  do  hereby  arraign  before  the  members  of  this 
Society  the  said  Josiah  Lamborn  to  answer  to  the  charges  preferred  against 
him  in  this  Endictment 

Witness  Thos  G.  M'Intyre  President  of  the  Jefferson  Society,  the  5th 
day  of  August  Eighteen  hundred  and  twenty  nine. 

Thos  P  Haille  Prosecutor 

After  which  the  Society  submitted  to  a  hearing  of  the  trial  Thos  P.  Haille 
Pros,  and  Addison  Rees  in  behalf  of  the  Society — A.  O.  Spencer  and  Ransom 
Brooks  for  Deft — Several  witnesses  being  examined  and  the  counsel  on 
each  side  having  finished  pleading,  The  Society  decided  the  offender  (on 
refusing  to  make  acknowledgements)  should  be  suspended  from  all  privi- 
leges of  the  Society  for  the  Term  of  one  month  from  the  commencement 
of  the  next  session. 

The  Society  then  appointed  a  Committee  to  inform  the  Faculty  that  it 
would  submit  to  any  arrangement  the  Faculty  might  think  proper  to  make 
with  respect  to  marching  at  the  Commencement,  after  which  the  Society 

Alfred  H  Pollock  Secty." 

There  is  no  record  to  show  that  Josiah  Lamborn  ever  made  acknowl- 
edgment of  this  accusation  but  the  records  do  show  that  he  was  taken  back 
into  the  full  fellowship  of  the  Society  and  was  appointed  to  make  the  next 
Fourth  of  July  address. 

Perhaps  a  more  flagrant  crime  (or  was  it  a  crime?),  was  committed  on 
July  12th,  1831.  The  usual  "Meeting  Extraordinary"  was  called  to  take 
into  consideration  the  conduct  of  a  student  "who  was  cited  by  the  Censor 
before  this  Society  (Jefferson)  to  answer  to  the  following  charges,  Viz. 
for  stealing  1  silk  Vest,  1  pair  Pantaloons,  a  five  dollar  bill,  (maybe  in  the 
pantaloons) ,  a  Book  of  Compositions,  other  Books  and  other  articles  of 

Augusta  College  39 

Sundry  Kinds."  The  accused  refused  to  be  present,  and  "the  Society, 
upon  due  consideration  of  the  subject;  being  thoroughly  convinced  of  the 
justice  of  the  charges,"1  proceeded,  summarily,  to  expel  him,  and  to  notify 
the  faculty  of  his  expulsion. 

This  smacks  of  the  predilection  of  some  college  boys  to  borrow  (with- 
out the  consent  of  the  owner),  such  articles,  when  they  have  a  special 
date,  and  the  faculty  knowing  the  ways  of  these  boys  and  with  the  return, 
perhaps,  of  the  articles  of  sundry  kinds,  may  have  dismissed  these  charges 
with  a  severe  reprimand.  Yet  his  name  does  not  appear,  afterwards,  on 
the  available  records. 

The  Board  of  Trustees  had  drawn  up  strict  by-laws  and  every  student 
was  required  to  sign  a  pledge  to  obey  them.  Yet,  in  spite  of  this,  there 
were  a  few  lapses  in  behavior. 

Some  of  these  laws  were: 

"The  Principal  in  the  Primary  Department  depends  for  his  compen- 
sation on  the  fees  of  his  pupils;  which  he  himself  is  to  collect.  The  year 
is  divided  into  quarters,  and  the  price  of  tuition  two  dollars  per  quarter. 
Four  weeks  vacation  are  allowed  during  the  year;  to  be  dated  and  distrib- 
uted by  the  Faculty  and  the  Principal." 

"This  school,  in  summer,  opens  at  eight,  and  closes  at  five;  and  in 
winter,  opens  at  half  past  eight,  and  closes  at  four;  both  seasons  having  a 
daily  intermission  from  noon  till  two." 

"Admittance  into  the  Freshman  class,  can  only  be  procured,  by  passing 
an  examination  before  the  Faculty  in  the  preparatory  studies,  possessing 
a  good  moral  character,  and  paying  the  advance  dues." 

"Students  who  have  accomplished  our  college  course,  and  paid  all  dues, 
are  eligible  candidates  for  the  first  degree,  or  Bachelor  of  Arts;  and  their 
title  is  decided,  after  examination  in  literature  and  science,  and  scrutiny 
of  moral  character,  by  recommendation  of  the  Faculty,  and  vote  of  the 
Board.  Before  the  degree  be  publicly  conferred,  every  candidate  must  per- 
form the  assigned  commencement  exercise." 

"Alumni  of  Augusta  College,  who,  after  leaving,  continue  the  culti- 
vation of  letters,  or  the  sciences,  or  enter  some  of  the  learned  professions, 
and  maintain  an  irreproachable  character,  shall,  in  three  years  after  com- 
mencing A.B.,  be  permitted,  by  the  same  formalities,  to  proceed  Master  of 
Arts.    In  no  case  shall  any  degree  be  granted,  as  a  matter  of  course." 

"Honorary  testimonials,  decorated  with  the  seal  of  the  College,  are  to 
be  adjudged  at  the  annual  examinations  to  such  students  as  distinguish 

"No  hallooing,  loud  talking,  whistling,  jumping,  or  other  disturbing  act, 
shall  be  permitted  in   the  buildings  of  the   College,   or   on   the   college 

1  Minutes — Jefferson  Literary  Society. 

40  Augusta  College 

grounds  during  recitation  hours;  and  all  tumultous  or  indecent  noises, 
disturbing  the  town,  or  any  of  its  inhabitants;  making  bonfires,  playing  off 
fireworks,  or  in  any  way  assisting  in  such  disorders,  are  utterly  disallowed." 

"The  students  of  Augusta  College  are  required  to  attend  public  wor- 
ship in  Augusta,  every  Sabbath  morning;  and,  as  far  as  practicable,  in  the 
evening;  and,  at  all  hours  and  places,  on  the  Sabbath,  to  conduct  them- 
selves with  becoming  sobriety  and  strict  decorum." 

"All  students  of  Augusta  are  expected  to  exhibit,  in  demeanor,  speech, 
and  action,  all  those  principles  and  sentiments,  which  characterize  the 
genuine  gentleman;  namely,  the  man  of  purity,  dignity,  and  benevolence." 

"The  punishments  denounced,  as  well  as  the  conduct  prescribed,  are 
applicable  to  the  Preparatory  Department.  The  students  in  this  school  are 
liable  to  the  punishment  of  the  rod,  when  judged  indispensable." 


"We,  whose  names  are  hereunto  subscribed,  being  ad- 
mitted students  of  Augusta  College,  having  read  with  at- 
tention the  By-Laws  of  said  College,  do  hereby  Declare 
upon  our  Honor,  that  we  cordially  acquiesce  in  these  laws 
and  will  constantly  obey  them: — And,  that  we  will  not  be 
guilty  of  profane  cursing  and  swearing,  card-playing,  any 
gaming  at  which  money  or  property  may  be  hazarded,  in- 
decent language,  or  disrespectful  conduct  towards  the  col- 
lege officers  or  instructors;  and,  that  without  the  special 
leave  of  a  professor,  parent,  or  guardian,  we  will  not  visit, 
for  any  purpose  whatever,  any  coffeehouse,  grocery,  or 
house  of  similar  kind,  where  spirituous  liquors  are  sold." 

"If  the  Trustees,  or  officers  of  the  College,  on  any  occasion,  shall  desire 
to  consult  a  book  in  the  library,  without  taking  it  from  the  room,  it  shall 
be  the  duty  of  the  Librarian  to  attend  them  for  that  purpose." 

"No  book  shall  be  permitted  to  be  carried  more  than  a  mile  from  the 

"All  the  students,  except  those  whose  parents  or  legal  guardians  reside 
in  Augusta,  are  required  to  keep,  in  books  provided  for  the  purpose,  reg- 
ular and  accurate  accounts  of  their  receipts  and  expenditures  of  money. 
These  books  are  submitted  for  examination,  at  the  close  of  each  session,  to 
a  committee  consisting  of  the  President  of  the  College  and  two  Trustees, 
accompanied  by  a  written  declaration  that  the  accounts  they  contain  are 
full  and  faithful." 

"It  is  earnestly  recommended,  that  all  monies  designed  for  the  college 
expenses  of  the  students,  be  deposited  by  their  friends  in  the  hands  of  some 

Doorway  to  "Piedmont",  the  Home  of  Dr.  Joshua  T.  Bradford 

The  College  Building  on  Bracken  Street  where  Hanson  Penn  Diltz 
wrote  "Hollow  Bracken" 

Marshall-Bradford  Home  on  Riverside  Drive 

The  Doniphan-Felix  Home  on  Fourth  Street 

Augusta  College  41 

person  in  Augusta,  as  a  college  Guardian,  or  Agent;  and  that  students  may 
not  have  the  control  of  considerable  sums  of  money,  or  be  allowed  a  too 
liberal  supply  of  pocket-money."1 

"The  course  of  instruction  in  the  Moral  Department  will  be  conducted, 
alternately,  by  Recitation  and  Lecture;  that  the  peculiar  advantage  result- 
ing from  each  of  these  modes  of  communication  may  be  fully  realized  by 
the  student. 

"During  the  Winter  Session,  an  extended  Course  of  Lectures  on  Chem- 
istry will  be  delivered  by  the  President,  accompanied  with  numerous 
appropriate  experiments. 

"The  services  of  a  Teacher  of  Modern  Languages  can  be  procured,  at 
any  time,  for  such  students  as  may  wish  to  acquire  those  Languages." 

This  is  an  account  of  the  annual  examinations,  the  commencement 
exercises,  and  a  list  of  the  faculty  members  for  the  year  1835: 

"The  annual  examination  commenced  in  this  institution  in  the  Aca- 
demic Department,  on  Friday  the  31  ult.,  at  9  o'clock.  The  business  of 
examination  was  conducted  alternately  by  Mr.  Chapman,  Preceptor  in  the 
Preparatory  Department,  and  by  the  President,  and  other  members  of  the 
faculty. — The  course  of  study  in  this  department  is  strictly  preparatory, 
comprehending  the  usual  elementary  branches  of  an  English  education, 
thoroughly  taught.  Latin — Adam's  Grammar — Historiae  Sacrae — Viri  Ro- 
mae — Caesar's  Commentaries — Virgil's  Aeneid,  (6  books).  Greek — An- 
thon's  Grammar — Greek  Testament — Graeca  Minora.  As  there  are  two 
public  examinations  in  the  several  departments  of  the  college  each  year, 
the  several  classes  at  each  examination,  are  only  examined  upon  the  studies 
of  the  preceding  session,  say  on  one  half  the  studies  of  the  college  year. 

"The  examination  of  the  college  classes  commenced  on  Monday,  the  3rd 
of  August,  in  the  department  of  Ancient  languages,  conducted  by  Professor 
McCowan,  occasionally  relieved  by  others.  The  writer  of  this  article  is  only 
anxious  to  present  the  general  outlines  of  the  course  of  study  in  each  de- 
partment, in  connection  with  the  actual  examination  witnessed  by  him, 
without  aiming  at  fulness  or  formality  of  detail  as  furnished  in  the  publi- 
cation of  the  College.  Latin — Virgil's  Aeneid,  continued, — Syntax — Cicero's 
Select  Orations — Horace — Cicero  de  Immortalities — Juvenal  Satires — Ro- 
man Antiquities.  Greek — Xenophon's  Cyropaedia — Syntax — Craeca  Ma- 
jora — Lingimus  on  the  sublime — Homer's  Iliad — Grecian  Antiquities.  He- 
brew— Stuart's  Grammar — Wilson's  Introduction — Biblia  Hebraica — Gebb's 
Manual,  Hebrew  and  English  Lexicon. — On  Tuesday  morning,  at  9  o'clock, 
the  examination  commenced  in  the  mathematical  Department,  including 
natural  philosophy  and  astronomy.  Professor  Tomlinson  examined  eight 
classes  successively  during  the  day.    The  Freshman  class  in  Geometry — 

1  By-Laws,  Augusta  College,  1837 

42  Augusta  College 

Playfair.  In  Algebra — Day.  In  Ancient  History,  with  Chronology  and 
Geography — Whelply.  In  Plane  Trigonometry — Gibson.  The  Sophomore 
class — mensuration  of  superfices  and  solids — Keith  on  the  Globes.  The 
Junior  class  in  surveying,  with  special  reference  to  both  theory  and  practice 
— Gibson — and  the  Senior  class  in  Astronomy.  The  principal  additional 
studies  in  this  department,  such  as  Logarithms — mensuration  of  heights 
and  distances — Gibson.  Navigation — Day.  Spherical  Trigonometry — Play- 
fair.  Conic  Sections — Simpson.  Differential  Calculus — Vince,  together 
with  an  illustration  of  principles,  by  an  appeal  to  suitable  apparatus,  with 
which  the  department  is  furnished,  could  only  be  glanced  at  en  passant. 
On  Wednesday,  the  5th,  at  the  usual  hour  the  examination  commenced 
in  the  department  of  moral  science.  The  first  hour  was  devoted  to  Intel- 
lectual Philosophy.  The  science  was  denned  and  discriminated  so  as  to 
fix  and  settle  its  limits — the  definite  objects  of  the  science  were  considered, 
together  with  the  most  approved  method  of  inquiry  applicable  to  the 
study.  A  text  book  is  used,  and  nothing  in  it  allowed  to  escape  the  notice 
of  the  student,  yet  it  is  used  as  a  basis  of  study  only,  and  not  appealed  to 
as  authority.  The  usual  method  of  recitation  and  drill  are  thoroughly  plied, 
and  concise,  perspicuous  lecture  accompanies  each  recitation  throughout 
the  entire  course,  the  object  of  which  is,  to  fix  attention  upon  what  may  be 
considered  the  demonstrated  principles  of  the  science,  as  found  in  Locke, 
Reid,  Stewart,  Brown,  and  others,  without  encumbering  the  subject  with 
opinions  and  conjectures  at  present  exploded,  or  at  best  of  questionable 
value.  A  class  was  next  examined  in  Moral  Philosophy,  and  the  plan  of 
the  instructor  was  the  same  as  in  the  preceding  study,  carefully  distin- 
guishing the  latter  as  a  science,  from  the  former,  and  pointing  out  its 
peculiar  uses  and  appropriate  applications.  A  class  was  then  examined  in 
Political  Economy.  Say,  it  seems,  is  adopted  as  a  nominal  guide,  drawing 
liberally  at  the  same  time  upon  Smith,  Ricardo,  Malthus,  Chalmers,  Phil- 
lips and  others.  Professor  Bascom  next  examined  a  class  in  Natural  The- 
ology. The  limits  of  the  science  were  settled — the  nature  of  the  evidence 
to  which  it  appeals  was  critically  examined,  and  what  is  peculiar  to  the 
science  as  such,  and  its  intimate  connection  with  the  interest  of  Chris- 
tianity were  noticed  with  special  care  and  at  length.  The  class  in  Natural 
and  Political  Law  was  next  in  order,  and  after  distinguishing  and  defining 
the  subjects,  in  accordance  with  modern  classification,  their  range  and  im- 
portance were  noticed,  in  a  way  calculated  to  evince  the  importance  of  the 
one  and  the  other.  The  examination  of  the  class  in  Natural  law  was 
directed  mainly  to  the  sources  and  obligations  of  the  science,  viewed  as  the 
law  of  nature  applied  to  nations,  and  modified  and  extended  by  conven- 
tional arrangement  among  them  as  contracting  parties — also  the  gradual 
growth  and  progress  of  the  science,  from  the  date  of  the  Justinian  Code 
to  the  present  time.    The  last  class  examined  was  one  of  Constitutional 

Augusta  College  43 

law,  with  special  reference  to  the  constitution  and  jurisprudence  of  the 
United  States.  On  Thursday  morning,  Mr.  Targowski  examined  the  class 
in  French,  and  exhibited  specimens  of  the  progress  of  his  pupils  in  drawing. 
"At  12  o'clock  the  board  of  trustees  met.  The  Reverend  Professor 
Tomlinson  was  elected  President  of  the  College.  The  Rev.  Joseph  M.  Trim- 
ble, A.M.,  of  the  Ohio  Conference,  was  appointed  Roberts  Professor  of 
Mathematics.  Mr.  Charles  Targowski,  late  from  Poland,  and  graduate  of 
the  University  of  Warsaw,  was  appointed  Professor  of  Modern  Languages 
and  of  Fine  Arts. 

"The  Rev.  Jonathan  Stamper,  and  the  Rev.  H.  H.  Kavanaugh  were  in 
attendance  as  a  visiting  committee  from  the  Kentucky  Conference;  and 
the  Rev.  Leroy  Swormstedt,  and  the  Rev.  Joseph  M.  Trimble  in  the  same 
capacity  from  the  Ohio  Conference." 

"The  exercise  of  commencement  began  at  half  past  8  o'clock  Friday 
morning.  A  large  procession  was  formed  at  the  college  chapel.  General 
Payne,  acting  as  marshal  of  the  day,  and  proceeded  thence  to  the  Metho- 
dist church,  with  a  fine  band  of  music  from  Cincinnati.  After  prayers  by 
President  Tomlinson,  and  music,  an  oration  on  Patriotism  was  delivered 
by  James  Madison  Jackson  of  Virginia.  2.  an  oration  on  the  Fickleness  of 
Fortune,  by  Thomas  Marshall  Key  of  Kentucky.  3.  A  Poem  on  Knowledge, 
by  Matthew  F.  Hopple,  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  4.  an  oration  on  the  Aborigines 
of  America,  by  R.  A.  Whetstone  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  5.  Valedictory  Ad- 
dress, by  Walter  Taylor,  of  Alabama.  6.  The  ceremony  of  conferring  de- 
grees— James  M.  Jackson,  Virginia,  Thomas  M.  Key,  Kentucky,  and  Wal- 
ter Taylor,  Alabama,  received  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts.  The  degree 
of  Master  of  Arts  was  conferred  on  John  S.  Bradshaw,  Kentucky;  William 
Campbell,  Kentucky;  William  P.  Cook,  Mississippi;  Joseph  W.  Davis,  Mis- 
sissippi; Matthew  F.  Hopple,  Ohio;  Robert  G.  Loving,  Virginia;  John  B. 
Merwin,  New  York;  Charles  Phillips,  Mississippi;  Samuel  P.  Smith,  Ohio; 
Samuel  A.  Spencer,  Ohio;  L.  D.  Stockton,  Kentucky;  and  R.  A.  Whetstone, 
Ohio — alumni  of  the  college.  The  honorary  degree  of  Master  of  Arts  was 
conferred  on  the  Rev.  Geo.  S.  Holmes,  of  Pennsylvania;  and  that  of  Doctor 
of  Laws,  on  Benjamin  Watkins  Leigh  of  Virginia. 

"Professor  Bascom  then  delivered  an  address  to  the  rival  literary  soci- 
ety of  the  college  'on  the  coincident  claims  of  intellect  and  morals  in  the 
formation  of  character.'  After  which,  the  exercises  were  closed  by  a 

"The  present  organization  of  the  Faculty  announced  as  follows,  by 
order  of  the  Board  of  Trustees:  1.  Rev.  Joseph  S.  Tomlinson,  A.M.,  Presi- 
dent and  Professor  of  Natural  Philosophy,  Astronomy  and  Chemistry.  2. 
Rev.  H.  B.  Bascom,  A.M.,  M'Kendree  Professor  of  Moral  Science  and  Belles 
Lettres.    3.    Rev.  Joseph  M.  Trimble,  A.M.,  Roberts  Professor  of  Mathe- 

44  Augusta  College 

matics.     4.    Rev.  B.  H.  McCowan,  A.M.,  Professor  of  Ancient  Languages. 

5.  Charles  Targowski,  Professor  of  Modern  Languages  and  the  Fine  Arts. 

6.  Mr.  A,  Chapman,  Preceptor  in  the  Preparatory  Department."1 


I.  Professorship  of  Ancient  Languages,  including  Latin,  Greek,  and 
Hebrew;  Grecian  and  Roman  Antiquities;  Ancient  Geography,  and 
Biblical  Literature. 

II.  Professorship  of  Modern  Languages,  comprising  French,  German 
and  Spanish. 

III.  Professorship  of  Mathematics,  entitled  the  Roberts  Professorship  of 
Mathematics;  comprehending  Pure  Mathematics,  and  the  application 
of  Mathematics  to  Mensuration,  Surveying,  Navigation,  Nautical 
Astronomy,  Geography,  and  Civil  Engineering. 

IV.  Professorship  of  Natural  Science,  including  Natural  Philosophy,  As- 
tronomy, and  Chemistry. 

V.  Professorship  of  Moral  Science,  styled  the  M'Kendree  Professorship 
of  Moral  Science;  embracing  Mental  Philosophy,  Moral  Philosophy, 
Natural  Theology,  Evidences  of  Christianity,  Christian  Ethics,  Nat- 
ural and  Political  Law,  Political  Economy,  and  the  Law  of  Nations. 

The  following  was  the  course  of  study  in  1837: 


English. — Grammar,  Elocution,  Penmanship. 

Mathematics,  &c. — Arithmetic,  Introduction  to  Algebra,  Geography. 

Latin. — Adam's   Grammar,   Walker's   Latin   Reader,   Eutropius   Phoedrus, 

Caesar,  Ovid,  Virgil,  Prosody,  Exercises. 
Greek. — Valpy's  Grammar,  Gospels  of  Luke  and  John,  Graeca  Minora. 

Note. — A  greater  or  lesser  number  of  the  Latin  books  is  read,  according  to 
the  state  of  the  student. 


Freshman  Class 

First  Session 

English. — Syntax  with  Analysis,  Exercises  in  Composition,  Elocution. 
Latin. — Virgil  reviewed  and  finished,  Prosody,  Sallust,  Exercises. 
Greek. — Xenophon's  Cyropoedia;  Anabasis   (Graeca  Majora),  Exercises. 

i  The  Commonwealth,  Frankfort,  Ky.,  Sept.  26,  1835. 

Augusta  College  45 

Mathematics. — Book-keeping  (single  and  double  entry),  Plain  Geometry, 
including  six  books. 

History. — Elements  of  Chronology,  Ancient  History,  with  Ancient  Geog- 

Second  Session 

English. — Syntax  with  criticism,  including  punctuation;  composition,  Elo- 

Latin. — Cicero's  Orations;  Exercises. 

Greek. — Herodotus,  Thucydides,  Lysias,  Isocrates,  Demosthenes  (Graeca 
Majora) ;  Exercises. 

Mathematics. — Algebra,  throughout  Equations  of  the  second  degree;  Geom- 
etry continued. 

History. — Modern  History,  with  Chronology  and  Geography. 

Sophomore  Class 
First  Session 

English. — Elements  of  Composition,  with  Analysis;  Original  Composition; 

Latin. — Horace;  Prosody;  Composition. 

Greek. — Xenophon's  Memorabilia;  Plato;  Aristotle  (Graeca  Majora) ;  Ex- 

Mathematics. — Algebra  finished;  Logarithms;  Plane  Trigonometry;  Men- 
suration of  Distances  and  Heights. 

History. — Greece;  Grecian  Antiquities. 

Second  Session 

English. — Elements  of  Composition  with  Criticism;  Exercises. 

Latin. — Livy;  Cicero  de  Officiis;  Composition. 

Greek. — Aristotle;  Dionysius;  Longinus;  Odyssey  (Graeca  Majora) ;  Exer- 

Mathematics. — Geometry  of  Planes  and  Solids;  Plane  and  Solid  Mensura- 
tion; Perspective  Geography,  including  the  use  of  the  Globes, 
and  the  construction  of  Maps. 

History. — Rome;  Roman  Antiquities. 

46  Augusta  College 

Junior  Class 
First  Session 

English. — Logic  and  Rhetoric;  Composition;  Declamation. 
Latin. — Tacitus;  Cicero  de  Amicitia,  &c;  Translations. 
Greek. — Hesiod;  Sophocles;  Euripides,  &c.    (Graeca  Majora). 
Mathematics. — Navigation;  Surveying;  Civil  Engineering. 
History. — England. 

Second  Session 

Moral  Science. — Political  Economy. 
English. — Composition ;  Declamation. 
Latin. — Juvenal;  Cicero  de  Oratore;  Translations. 
Greek. — Homer's  Iliad. 

Mathematics,  &c. — Analytical  Geometry,  including  Conic  Sections;  Spheri- 
cal Trigonometry;  Natural  Philosophy  commenced;  Chemistry. 
History. — United  States,  and  Constitution. 

Senior  Class 
First  Session 

Moral  Department. — Mental  Philosophy;  Moral  Philosophy;  Evidences  of 

Christianity;  Natural  Theology. 
English,  &c. — Logic  and  Rhetoric  reviewed,  with  Elements  of  Criticism; 

Composition;  Forensics. 
Latin. — Quintilian,  former  books  reviewed  or  completed. 

Second  Session 

Moral  Department. — Mental  Philosophy,  with  special  reference  to  Analysis 
and  Classification;  Christian  Ethics;  Natural  and  Political  Law; 
Law  of  Nations;  General  Review;  Exercises. 

Greek. — Longinus,  former  authors  reviewed  or  finished. 

Natural  Science. — Astronomy,  &c. 

N.B. — Such  students  as  may  desire  it,  will  be  instructed  in  the  Hebrew, 
by  the  Professor  of  Languages. 

The  Classes  in  Surveying  and  Civil  Engineering,  will  be 
exercised,  practically,  in  these  branches,  under  the  supervision 
of  the  Professor  of  Mathematics. 

Augusta  College  47 

Augusta  College  conferred  the  honorary  degree  of  LL.D.  on  George 
Robertson,  Chief  Justice  of  Kentucky  and  one  of  Kentucky's  most  honored 

High  on  the  hill  back  of  Augusta,  there  was  a  very  old  Negro  church. 
The  darkies  sang  early  and  continued  until  late,  and  their  musical,  har- 
monious voices  floated  softly  over  the  quiet  of  the  town.  Stephen  Foster 
may  have  come  often  to  visit  his  uncles,  Dr.  Joseph  Tomlinson  who  was 
President  of  the  College  and  Dr.  John  Tomlinson,  a  physician.  He  was 
in  Augusta  with  his  mother  in  1833,  at  the  age  of  six  years,  an  impression- 
able age,  and  it  can  hardly  be  doubted  that  he  heard  many  of  these  songs 
in  their  happier  vein  and  was  impressed  by  them.  He  was  to  put  into  song 
at  a  later  time  the  sorrow  that  their  voices  reflected. 

Of  his  visit  to  Augusta  in  1833,  his  mother  wrote  to  her  son,  William 
B.  Foster,  Jr.,  as  follows: 

"My  dear  son. 

It  has  been  one  week  this  day  since  I  returned  from  a 
long  journey.  In  the  first  place  your  father  conducted  me, 
with  Henrietta  and  Stephen,  on  board  the  Napoleon  and 
placed  me  under  the  care  of  Captain  Stone.  There  were 
many  pleasant  passengers  amongst  the  ladies.  There  was 
an  old  Presbyterian  from  your  country  nam'd  Mrs.  Boyed. 
We  landed  on  the  fourth  night  at  Augusta  a  beautiful  vil- 
lage on  the  bank  of  the  Ohio  in  Kentucky  where  I  have 
two  brothers  living  very  neatly.  Joseph  the  eldest  where 
I  stayed  three  weeks  is  President  of  the  College  and  a  fine 
amiable  gentlemanly  man.  Henrietta  had  a  fine  opportu- 
nity of  practicing  on  the  piano  at  his  house.  When  we  left 
Augusta  my  brother  pay'd  my  passage,  and  put  me  on 
board  the  Champlain  a  daily  packet  which  conveyed  me 
to  Cincinnati  where  I  remained  a  week  at  Mr.  Cassilys, 
on  Broad  Way,  handsomely  treated."1 

The  Tomlinson  family  was  zealously  antislavery  and  intensely  inter- 
ested in  this  controversial  question.  With  the  College,  it  was  then  a  moral 
and  not  a  political  issue.  Dr.  Joseph  Tomlinson  was  to  lead  Augusta  into 
the  Northern  Conference,  the  only  one  in  the  Circuit  to  leave  the  Southern 

So,  the  slavery  question  must  have  been  discussed  often  in  the  Tomlin- 
son homes  and,  as  there  was  a  daily  packet  from  Cincinnati  where  Stephen 
Foster  was  living  at  the  time,  it  would  hardly  be  an  exaggeration  to  infer 

1  Original  letter,  owned  by  Mrs.  Alfred  C.  Worneweck,  Stuart,  Florida,  Stephen 
Foster's  niece. 

48  Augusta  College 

that  he  often  visited  the  families  of  his  prominent  relatives  and  heard  much 
of  the  plight  of  the  darkies  of  whom  he  was  later  to  create  a  folklore  of 
songs  beloved  by  all  the  world. 

Henrietta  Foster  was  afterwards  the  grandmother  of  Henrietta  Cross- 
man,  the  actress,  who  was  to  make  the  character  of  "Rosalind"  live  in 
the  hearts  of  the  American  people. 

The  slavery  question  had  long  been  a  vital  one  among  the  student  body, 
but  at  first  this  and  related  questions,  though  often  discussed,  resolved 
themselves  into  but  one  decision:  that  slavery  should  be  abolished  by  gov- 
ernmental decree. 

They  seemed  to  realize  that  the  question  was  so  important  that  it  might 
bring  about  a  dissolution  of  the  government. 

The  records  show  clearly  this  interest  and  concern.  As  early  as  No- 
vember 7,  1828,  the  subject  for  debate  was:  "Would  it  be  policy  in  the 
United  States  to  abolish  slavery?"    Decision  in  the  affirmative. 

"Is  involuntary  slavery  justifiable  in  any  case?"  Decided  in  the  neg- 
ative.   Dec.  9,  1831. 

"Should  the  United  States  pass  a  law  to  prohibit  the  extension  of  slav- 
ery?"   Nov.  8,  1848.    Decided  in  the  affirmative. 

"Do  the  signs  of  our  times  portend  a  dissolution  of  our  political  union?" 
Nov.  8,  1848.    Decision  in  the  affirmative. 

"Would  it  be  to  the  interest  of  the  citizens  of  Kentucky  to  abolish 
slavery?"    April  21,  1848.    Decision  in  affirmative. 

"Would  it  be  good  policy  in  the  citizens  of  Kentucky  to  abolish  slav- 
ery?"   July  14,  1848.    Decided  in  the  affirmative. 

High  on  the  agenda  of  the  debates  of  the  societies  (as  now),  was  the 
question  of  the  foreign  and  domestic  policy  of  the  United  States: 

"Was  it  good  policy  in  our  government  to  repeal  the  tariff  of  1842?" 

"Is  it  probable  that  a  Republican  form  of  government  will  become 

"Does  party  spirit  tend  to  the  promulgation  of  truth?" 

"Should  the  Primary  branches  of  an  English  Education  be  made  requi- 
site to  constitute  a  Legal  voter?" 

And  again  in  a  lighter  vein: 

"Should  a  man  ask  a  girl  to  marry  him  after  she  has  refused  him  once?" 

"Is  a  frequent  association  with  the  refined  of  the  other  sex  calculated 
to  preserve  a  young  man  from  the  contamination  of  low  pursuits?"  All  the 
members,  but  one,  participated  in  this  discussion  and  "much  light  was  emi- 
nated."  The  censor  took  a  "birds-eye  view"  of  the  argument  and  decided 
in  the  affirmative;  the  house  concurred,  on  its  merits. 

Mr.  White  was  fined  25^.  Fines  of  12V2  and  25^  were  frequently  im* 
posed;  it  may  have  been  a  good  way  to  raise  revenue. 

JttirjSTA  foxalj:  Coixe&k 

1852  -  1860 

The  Home  of  William  J.  Rankins  and  Jane  Silverthorn  Rankins 


1868  -  1879 


The  Cleveland-Harbeson  Home  on  Fourth  Street 

Augusta  College  49 

The  first  signs  of  disagreement  came  with  the  withdrawal  of  some  of 
the  faculty  to  take  a  leading  part  in  Transylvania  University  in  1842. 

Henry  Bascom  of  Augusta  College  who  joined  the  pro-slavery  cause 
was  Transylvania's  first  President  under  the  Methodist  regime. 

The  Ohio  Conference  continued  until  later,  but  its  support  was  with- 
drawn with  the  establishment  of  Ohio  Wesleysn  University  at  Delaware  in 

The  Augusta  College  continued  under  the  Kentucky  Conferences  until 
1846  when  the  Northern  Conference  of  Kentucky  became  its  sole  sponsor. 

Dissension  among  the  students  even  yet  can  be  noticed.  The  following 
record  gives  a  clue  to  rising  feelings: 

"June  26,  1846 

"We  are  sorry  to  find  that  the  majority  of  the  members 
of  the  Jefferson  Literary  Society  have  little  magnanimity 
and  we  regret  that  we  are  again  compelled  to  call  upon 
the  trustees  of  the  Baptist  Church  for  the  use  of  said 

"Respect'y  yours, 

"R.  G.  Stirling  Set. 
"Union  Literary  Society." 

In  the  minutes  of  the  Jefferson  Literary  Society,  dated  June,  1849,  the 
heading  is:  "UNDER  THE  NEW  ADMINISTRATION,"  and  the  closing,  is 
ETC.,  ETC."  And  August  24:  "RESOLVED  that  the  Secretary  be  in- 
structed to  call  a  public  meeting  of  the  Jefferson  Literary  Society  for  the 
purpose  of  making  some  disposition  of  the  property  of  the  Society  at  as 
early  a  time  as  possible  in  some  public  journal." 

"B.  F.  Morris" 

"The  Augusta  College  trustees  having  sold  to  Sarah  Armstrong  and 
mortgaged  to  John  Armstrong  the  ferry  rights  in  the  town  of  Augusta 
from  the  Kentucky  to  the  Ohio  shore  and  a  resale  was  made  to  [Dr.]  Joshua 
T.  Bradford,  and  as  the  Legislature  at  the  last  session  repealed  the  charter 
of  the  Augusta  College,  it  is  recommended  that  a  law  be  passed  giving  title 
to  the  Ferry  rights  to  Joshua  T.  Bradford." 

"To  many,  paradoxically,  the  greatest  glory  of  Augusta  College  was  in 
its  ending.  It  was  the  center  of  the  antislavery  movement  in  Kentucky, 
and  the  feeling  against  the  College  became  so  intense  that  the  Legislature 

50  Augusta  College 

repealed  its  charter."1  And  this  may  account  for  the  sentiment  that  was 
directed  against  Augusta  in  the  Civil  War  that  was  to  follow. 

And  so  came  to  a  close  an  institution  so  well-founded  and  with  the 
prospect  of  so  glorious  a  future.  It  had  lived  only  twenty-seven  years,  from 
1822  to  1849,  but  in  those  years  it  had  lived  vitally  and  with  a  high  purpose, 
and  that  accounts  for  the  number  of  men  who  were  attracted  to  it,  who 
loomed  large  in  the  life  of  America. 

Throughout  the  cities  of  the  United  States  and  in  the  remote  corners 
of  the  earth  are  the  Wesleyan  Colleges,  institutions  of  learning,  moral  cul- 
ture, and  progress,  and  they  had  their  beginning  in  the  Augusta  College. 

Surely  the  influence  begun  in  this  small  town  has  extended  to  the  far 
corners  of  the  earth. 

1  Dr.  Gross,  op.  cit.,  p.  23. 

Augusta  College  51 

Chapter  IV 


The  compromise  of  1859  formerly  proposed  by  Henry  Clay  had  quieted 
to  some  extent  the  slavery  question.  The  appearance  of  Mrs.  Harriet 
Beecher  Stowe's  Uncle  Tom's  Cabin  in  1852,  had  provoked  bitterness  be- 
tween the  North  and  the  South. 

Mrs.  Stowe  was  a  daughter  of  Lyman  Beecher,  a  noted  preacher  of 
Cincinnati.  She  had  a  girls'  school  in  Cincinnati,  and  Marshall  Key's 
daughter  was  a  pupil.  He  was  a  trustee  of  the  Augusta  College.  On 
a  visit  to  Kentucky,  Harriet  Beecher  stopped  at  the  home  of  Marshall  Key 
in  Washington,  Kentucky,  and  saw  a  sale  of  Negroes  on  the  auction  block 
at  the  old  courthouse.  It  is  said  that  she  received  her  inspiration  for  her 
book  here. 

Civil  War  was  being  carried  on  between  the  states.  Augusta  seemed  to 
be  in  a  very,  vulnerable  position  as  letters  of  concern  were  sent  to  the 
Augusta  trustees  by  Maysville,  Kentucky,  Ripley  and  Felicity,  Ohio,  offer- 
ing aid.  It  is  significant  that  the  mayor  and  city  council  (F.  L.  Cleveland, 
S.  T.  Powers,  Dr.  J.  J.  Bradford,  W.  S.  McKibben,  T.  F.  Marshall,  B.  H. 
Rankins,  and  Joseph  Doniphan,  mayor)  appropriated  $1,500  for  100  stand 
of  arms,  and  made  it  unlawful  to  sell  any  gunpowder. 

On  April  13th,  1861,  a  new  council  was  elected  as  follows:  Joseph  Don- 
iphan, mayor;  W.  C.  Marshall  (grandfather  of  General  George  C.  Marshall) , 
T.  F.  Marshall  (he  cast  the  deciding  vote  in  the  Senate  that  kept  Kentucky 
in  the  Union) ,  J.  T.  Bradford  (noted  Kentucky  surgeon) ,  L.  J.  Bradford, 
P.  H.  Rudd,  John  Taylor  (one  of  the  staunch  and  true  Confederates) ,  J.  B. 
Ryan,  and  F.  L.  Cleveland  (first  cousin  of  President  Grover  Cleveland) . 

On  April  20,  1861,  with  the  appropriation  of  $1,500  the  Home  Guard 
was  organized  to  see  that  neutrality  was  observed  and  to  protect  the  town 
against  guerillas  and  bushwhackers,  or  any  force  that  might  attack  it. 

Colonel  Basil  Duke,  with  his  headquarters  at  Falmouth,  Kentucky,  had 
sent  Capt.  Castleman  with  a  detachment  of  Morgan's  Cavalry  to  Foster's 
Landing,  six  miles  below  Augusta,  to  reconnoiter  and  locate  a  place  on  the 
Ohio  where  the  river  could  be  forded.  On  Wednesday,  September  24th, 
about  forty  rebels  visited  the  home  of  Mrs.  Mary  Coburn,  two  and  one  half 
miles  from  Augusta  on  the  Augusta  and  Georgetown  road.  The  town,  still 
under  martial  law,  must  have  been  apprized  of  these  reconnaissances,  and 


52  Augusta  College 

every  road  was  picketed  at  the  town  limits  and  about  three  miles  out  in 
the  country. 

Basil  Duke,  in  command  of  a  detachment  of  Morgan's  Cavalry  con- 
sisting of  about  four  hundred  and  fifty  men,  including  a  light  artillery  com- 
pany, left  Falmouth,  Kentucky,  on  Saturday  morning,  September  27,  1862, 
with  the  intention  of  breaking  up  the  Home  Guard  at  Augusta,  crossing 
the  Ohio  at  a  ford  below  the  town  and  "marching  toward  Cincinnati,  to 
threaten  the  city  that  the  troops  at  Walton,  Kentucky,  would  be  hurried 
back  to  protect  it."  Coming  through  Brooksville  towards  Augusta,  they 
captured  the  outside  pickets  and  brought  them  with  them,  coming  along 
the  old  Augusta  and  Georgetown  road  past  the  Coburn's  home,  and  about 
a  mile  down  this  road,  through  a  hollow,  they  reached  the  summit  of  a 
one  hundred  and  seventy-five  foot  hill  that  overlooks  the  town. 

Laying  at  the  wharf  were  two  gunboats  of  the  mosquito  fleet;  the 
U.S.S.  Belfast,  Captain  Sedam  commanding,  and  the  U.S.S.  Florence  Miller. 
Duke  determined  "to  drive  them  away  before  moving  the  bulk  of  the 
command  from  the  hill  and  planted  his  howitzers  on  the  highest  point 
where  they  could  probably  chuck  every  shell  into  the  boats." 

The  Confederate  artillery  company  on  the  hill  had  placed  a  gun  near 
a  large  tree.  It  was  discovered  by  the  gunboat  Belfast  which  threw  a  shell, 
and  so  well  was  it  aimed  that  it  struck  within  thirty  feet  of  the  Confed- 
erate gun,  killing  two  or  three  of  its  men  and  causing  a  change  in  its 

Up  to  this  time  the  people  of  Augusta  were  generally  unaware  of  the 
Confederates  on  the  hill,  for  when  this  first  shell  went  over  the  town  there 
were  children  playing  in  the  streets  away  from  home. 

Duke  then  sent  Company  A  and  the  advance  guard  down  the  road  to 
the  east  end  of  the  town.  Here  they  would  be  enabled  to  annoy  the  troops 
on  the  boats  very  greatly.  The  howitzers  were  then  opened  on  the  boats 
and  one  shell  burst  near  them,  one  penetrating  the  hull  of  the  "Flag  Ship," 
and  the  fleet  was  sent  scurrying  up  the  river. 

When  the  boats  were  well  past  the  town  proper,  the  Confederates  were 
sent  down  the  road  and  through  the  fields  into  the  town.  Duke  had  seen 
the  Home  Guards  going  into  the  houses,  but  without  gunboat  protection 
he  expected  an  immediate  surrender.  But  the  Home  Guards  had  decided 
to  fight  for  their  homes  and  their  neutrality. 

Duke,  entering  the  town  in  force,  divided  his  men;  they  rushed  down 
Elizabeth,  Upper  and  Main  streets.  The  contingent  that  went  down  Main 
Street  turned  east  at  Front  Street  and  passed  the  home  of  Major  Bradford 
who,  feeling  he  had  been  deserted  by  the  gunboats  and,  since  there  were 
only  fifty  or  sixty  Home  Guards  in  the  town  at  the  time,  "surrendered 
with  a  white  flag  from  his  upstairs  window."  The  men  in  the  other  houses 
were  unaware  of  this  surrender,    and   when   the   Confederate    contingent 

Augusta  College  53 

turned  from  Front  into  Upper  Street,  they  were  met  by  a  withering  fire 
from  the  upstairs  windows  of  the  James  Armstrong  and  Thomas  Myers 
buildings,  on  opposite  corners  of  the  street. 

The  men  had  been  unseen  by  Duke  as  they  entered  these  houses,  and 
as  soon  as  Captain  Cassell  and  Lieutenant  Greenberry  Roberts  heard  the 
firing,  they  came  to  reinforce  the  men  in  the  streets.  Lieutenant  Roberts' 
men  were  mounted  and  they  added  to  the  confusion.  The  sergeant  who  had 
charge  of  the  howitzers  opened  fire  on  the  town  and  Lieutenant  Roberts 
was  killed  and  other  Confederates  wounded.  The  artillery  sergeant  was 
sent  notice  to  cease  firing,  and  the  foot  soldiers  were  ordered  to  capture  the 
Federal  forces  in  the  houses. 

Lieutenant  George  White  was  shot  from  his  horse  as  he  came  down 
Upper  Street;  Captain  Kennett  was  wounded  and  died  very  soon,  and 
Lieutenant  William  Courtland  Prentice  (son  of  George  D.  Prentice,  editor 
of  the  Louisville  Journal) ,  was  carried,  mortally  wounded,  to  the  front 
porch  of  James  Weldon,  then  to  the  colonial  home  of  Lewis  Wells  at  the 
northeast  corner  of  Third  and  Elizabeth  streets,  where  he  died  on  the 
Monday  following. 

Captain  Whip  Rogers  of  Cynthiana  fell  at  the  door  of  the  home  of  J.  T. 
McKibben  on  Upper  Street,  between  Front  and  Second  streets.  He  called 
for  Lieutenant  King,  to  give  him  a  message  to  his  father,  Rev.  Rogers,  a 
pioneer  preacher  at  Cynthiana.  But  before  he  could  finish,  King  was  shot 
from  the  hallway  and  died  before  Rogers.  An  old  man  of  that  company, 
private  Puckett,  devotedly  attached  to  both  of  these  men,  rushed  to  raise 
them,  but  was  instantly  killed,  falling  upon  them.  A  badly  wounded  Con- 
federate soldier  by  the  name  of  Wilson  was  taken  to  the  home  of  W.  C. 
Marshall,  one  of  Augusta's  largest  and  finest  homes,  and  Duke  told  Mrs. 
Marshall  that  he  had  taken  two  of  her  sons  prisoners  and,  unless  the  soldier 
was  well  treated,  her  sons  would  not  be  paroled. 

Details  were  then  ordered  to  break  into  the  buildings,  and  the  artillery 
was  brought  into  the  streets  and  turned  on  the  houses  where  there  was 
resistance.  Double-shotted  with  grape  and  canister,  the  howitzers  tore 
great  gaps  in  the  walls.  Two  or  three  houses  were  set  on  fire  and  Union 
soldiers  were  burned  in  these  buildings. 

Over  on  Elizabeth  Street  Captain  Sam  Morgan,  cousin  of  Colonel 
John  Hunt  Morgan,  was  seriously  wounded  and  was  taken  to  the  home  of 
Walter  P.  Taylor  on  the  corner  of  Front  and  Elizabeth  streets.  Mr.  Taylor 
bathed  his  face  and  Mrs.  Taylor  tore  up  her  linen  tablecloth  trying  to  save 
his  life,  but  he  died  in  the  Taylor's  home. 

Duke  in  his  narrative  wrote:  "Some  of  the  women  came  (while  the 
fight  was  raging)  from  the  part  of  the  town  where  they  had  retired  for 
safety,  to  the  most  dangerous  positions,  and  waited  upon  the  wounded, 
while  the  balls  were  striking  around  them." 

54  Augusta  College 

The  little  band  of  Union  defenders  had  fought  until  holding  out  was  no 
longer  possible,  and  a  general  surrender  was  made.  This  was  a  signal  for 
the  plundering  that  followed.  Entrance  was  gained  to  stores  and  homes 
and  their  contents  looted. 

The  firing  of  the  town  began  at  the  home  of  J.  T.  McKibben  and  con- 
tinued to  Front  Street  to  the  store  and  home  of  Thomas  Myers;  then  east, 
burning  the  house  of  John  McCormick,  occupied  by  J.  B.  Ryan,  the  store 
of  Philip  Knoedler,  the  home  of  Watson  Diltz,  a  house  owned  by  W.  P. 
Taylor  and  occupied  by  the  Adams  family,  and  the  Taylor's  home;  and  a 
lumber  yard  back  of  the  houses.  Crossing  Elizabeth  Street  the  fire  burned 
the  home  of  Mrs.  Howk.  She  was  ill  and  was  carried  out  of  the  house  by 
Confederate  soldiers.  The  flames  from  Tom  Howk's  drug  store  leaped 
over  the  home  of  Thornton  F.  Marshall  and  destroyed  a  frame  building  on 
the  other  side,  but  was  brought  under  control  at  the  home  of  Vachel 
Weldon.  James  Armstrong's  store  was  set  on  fire  on  West  Upper  Street 
but  did  not  burn,  but  Robert  Patterson's  store,  below,  was  destroyed. 

"About  9:00  or  10:00  o'clock  that  night,  a  force  started  from  Ripley, 
Ohio,  with  the  intention  of  cutting  off  Basil  Duke's  retreat,  encumbered  as 
he  was  with  wounded  men  and  prisoners  on  foot.  At  Minerva,  Kentucky, 
the  recruits  were  on  their  way  to  join  their  regiments  and  volunteers  from 
Maysville.  Their  captain  turned  the  command  over  to  Col.  Orange  Ed- 
wards of  Ripley,  and,  on  arriving  in  sight  of  Brooksville,  Duke's  forces 
were  seen  in  possession  of  the  town.  These  soon  came  out  and  formed  for 
a  charge.  The  artillery  stationed  on  the  pike  fired  two  shots  at  Duke's 
men  who,  however,  had  had  more  fighting  than  they  had  expected,  so 
they  wheeled  about,  left  their  prisoners  and  double-quicked  for  Kirby 
Smith's  army,  which  soon  after  raised  the  siege  of  Cincinnati  and  retreated 

On  Sunday  morning,  Mrs.  Veach  took  her  ten  year  old  son  on  a  tour 
of  inspection.  "We  went  to  Front  street  over  Frankfort  street,  and  down 
Front,  horrified  at  what  we  saw,  and  were  told  what  had  happened  by 
bystanders  here  and  there  until  reaching  Upper  Street,  where  we  went 
into  a  store  on  the  west  side  of  Upper  and  Front  to  be  shown  a  long 
row  of  dead,  heads  to  the  counter,  bodies  all  lying  with  feet  to  the  center 
of  the  room.  We  listened  to  the  names  and  the  incident  of  of  each,  by  a 
man  who  seemed  to  know.  We  found  horrifying  sights  of  every  sort,  and 
when  we  reached  the  next  corner  [now  Park]  we  turned  south,  and  soon 
came  upon  Dr.  Will  Keith's  office  and  residence,  where  we  heard  the 
moaning  of  some  of  the  wounded.  The  Doctor  said  one  man  had  been 
pierced  through  eight  times,  and  he  still  lived,  but  unconscious.  He  told 
us  that  one  had  died  in  the  afternoon." 

A  foray  such  as  this  one  at  Augusta  was  disastrous  to  Duke's  command 
as  he  had  lost  several  efficient  officers,  and  his  daring  plan  had  failed. 

Augusta  College  55 

Besides  the  loss  of  its  valuable  citizens,  Augusta  had  seen  over  two 
and  a  half  blocks  of  the  town  destroyed  by  fire,  with  some  of  its  finest 

The  Union  soldiers  killed  were:  Dr.  William  H.  Taylor,  a  graduate  of 
Jefferson  Medical  College,  associated  with  Dr.  Joshua  T.  Bradford;  Charles 
A.  Landen,  a  student  of  the  Augusta  College;  Alpheus  McKibben;  J.  J. 
Gephart;  George  Byar;  John  Perkins;  N.  B.  Worthington;  John  B.  Story; 
Oliver  Stairs;  W.  Gregg,  and  five  wounded  men.  Duke  reported  his  loss  as 
twenty-one  killed  and  eighteen  wounded,  including  "some  matchless  offi- 

"We  hope  these  cruel  outrages  upon  the  people  of  this  state  are  un- 
avoidable. We  hope  it  may  fully  appear  to  be  so;  but  if  the  Tenth  Ken- 
tucky Cavalry,  raised  around  Augusta  and  this  place  (Maysville)  had  been 
left  to  defend  them  it  could  not  have  chanced."2 

1  Walter  H.  Rankins,  Morgan's  Cavalry  and  the  Home  Guard,  Augusta,  Ken- 
tucky.   Filson  Club  History  Quarterly,  October  1953. 

2  Letter  to  H.  G.  Wright,  ORU  &  C.A.A.P.C.  et  Series  1,  Vol.  XVI,  page  1011,  ff. 

56  Augusta  College 

Chapter  V 


Augusta's  progress  had  been  retarded  but  not  its  schools. 

The  Bracken  Female  Academy  was  chartered  by  the  Kentucky  Legis- 
lature in  1836  and  occupied  the  former  Bracken  Academy  buildings.  Misses 
Louise  and  Julia  Prinz,  from  Virginia,  were  the  first  teachers,  and  Henry 
Bascom  was  one  of  its  first  trustees. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  S.  Orr  established  the  Augusta  Female  College 
in  the  Augusta  College  building,  and  among  the  teachers  were  Miss  Eliza 
McCracken  and  Miss  Jane  Silverthorn,  of  Virginia.  The  latter  became  the 
wife  of  William  J.  Rankins. 

The  building  was  damaged  by  fire  in  1852  and  again  in  1856,  but  a  new 
and  more  modern  one  was  erected  before  1860.  Mr.  Orr  had  died  and  Mr. 
A.  C.  Armstrong  married  Mrs.  Orr,  and  the  Augusta  Female  College  was 
continued.  Mrs.  Mary  Armstrong  Lauderbach,  who  founded  the  Philip 
Buckner  Chapter,  Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution  in  Bracken 
County,  was  their  daughter. 

Professor  B.  T.  Bluett  continued  the  Augusta  College  and  Professor 
G.  M.  Yancey  established  the  Augusta  Male  and  Female  College. 

From  the  Bracken  Chronicle,  August  24,  1871: 


The  next  Session  of  this  Institution  will  begin  on  the 
11th  day  of  September,  1871. 

A  full  corps  of  Teachers  is  secured  to  take  charge 
of  the  different  Departments. 

The  course  of  study  is  such  as  is  found  in  the  best 
schools  and  colleges   (male  and  female) . 

For  further  particulars  address, 

G.  M.  YANCEY,  A.M. 


The  Sylvanus  McKibben  Home  on  Williams  Street 

The  Augusta  Public  and  High  School.    A  Large  Gymnasium  Has  Been  Added 

Knoedler  Memorial  Library 

Within  This  Row  Was  the  Girls'  School  of  Miss  "Birdie"  Blades 

Augusta  College  57 

There  were  private  schools  also.  Professor  Britt,  of  Harvard  Univer- 
sity, conducted  a  select  girls'  school  in  the  second  floor  rooms  of  the  home 
of  Mr.  James  Kinney.  Mr.  Richard  Mitchell  had  a  school  in  the  home 
afterwards  owned  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kendall  Morgan. 

Mr.  Mitchell,  who  had  married  Miss  Belle  Rankin,  was  head  of  the 
Augusta  College,  and  after  his  death  Mrs.  Mitchell  continued  the  College. 
Later  she  married  Hon.  F.  L.  Cleveland. 

Dr.  Stevenson  graduated  from  Transylvania  during  the  presidency  of 
Dr.  Bascom.  He  was  elected  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  of  Ken- 
tucky on  the  same  ticket  that  elected  Abraham  Lincoln  President  of  the 
United  States.  Dr.  Stevenson  reestablished  Union  College  at  Barbourville, 
Kentucky,  and  was  one  of  the  founders  of  Kentucky  Wesleyan  College  and 
was  elected  President  of  the  reestablished  Augusta  College  in  1879.  This 
college  again  had  the  support  of  the  Methodist  Conference  and  continued 
until  1887  when  it  was  acquired  by  the  town  trustees  and  became  a  public 
grade  and  high  school. 

"Undoubtedly  one  of  the  most  decisive  contributions  to  Christian  edu- 
cation in  Kentucky  during  the  last  half  of  the  Nineteenth  Century  was 
made  by  Dr.  Daniel  Stevenson."1 

The  college  building  was  replaced  by  the  present  public  and  high  school 
system.    A  large  gymnasium  has  been  added. 

The  list  of  the  professors,  teachers  and  graduates  of  this  school  is  to  be 
found  preserved  in  the  school  archives.  It  has  been  a  progressive  and 
important  public  high  school,  with  proficient  and  meritorious  professors 
and  teachers  and,  with  the  inspiration  of  the  notable  schools  it  succeeded, 
it  is  doing  an  excellent  work  in  the  community. 

Augusta  was  ever  mindful  that  its  churches  were  the  bulwark  of  our 
civilization  and  that  they  were  the  most  important  influence  for  good. 
There  have  been  many  learned  and  devout  men  who  were  ministers,  and 
great  care  and  pride  have  been  taken  in  buildings  and  equipment  of  its 
eight  churches.  They  are,  in  the  order  of  their  founding  in  Augusta: 
The  Augusta  Presbyterian  Church,  The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  The 
Augusta  Baptist  Church,  St.  Paul's  Methodist  Church  (colored),  St.  Au- 
gustine's Catholic  Church,  The  Augusta  Christian  Church,  The  First  Church 
of  the  Nazarene,  and  The  Pilgrim  Holiness  Church. 

Dr.  John  Owen  Gross,  President,  Union  College. 

58  Augusta  College 

Chapter  VI 


Augusta  has  had  fine  hotels.  They  have  been  well  appointed  and  have 
entertained  many  notable  people. 

The  Bodman  and  Smith  hotels  were  located  on  Riverside  Drive,  and 
colorful  Senator  Joe  Blackburn  was  a  frequent  visitor.  The  story  is  told  of 
a  visit  to  his  suite  by  a  Democratic  politician  who  took  a  boy  from  a 
Republican  family  to  see  him,  and,  with  his  characteristic  good  humor, 
he  sent  back  to  this  family  the  story  of  the  man  who  crawled  into  a  hollow 
log  to  spend  the  night  and  it  rained  so  hard  that  the  log  shrank  leaving 
but  a  small  opening — so  small  that  the  man  could  not  get  out.  He  thought 
of  all  the  mean  things  he  had  done,  and  he  remembered  that  he  had  at  one 
time  voted  the  Republican  ticket,  and  he  felt  so  little  about  it  that  he  was 
able  to  crawl  out  this  tiny  opening. 

Congressman  Sam  Pugh  was  an  important  Republican  guest  and  had 
many  torchlight  parades  in  his  honor. 

The  Parkview  hotel,  built  by  T.  E.  Milner  followed  these  hotels,  is  an 
asset  to  the  city. 

Bryant's  showboat,  a  leader  among  showboats  on  the  Ohio,  gave  its  first 
performance  at  Augusta,  and  the  John  Robinson  Circus  often  showed  in 
the  town,  to  the  edification  and  delight  of  the  small  boys. 

Augusta  was  a  good  Chautauqua  town  and  demanded  excellent  talent. 
Among  its  many  attractions  were:  lectures  by  William  Jennings  Bryan 
and  Vice  President  Thomas  A.  Marshall. 

Russell  Hall,  dedicated  by  Sol.  Smith  Russell,  was  Bracken  County's 
and  Augusta's  largest  entertainment  building. 

Augusta  became  an  exceptional  community  of  accomplished  and  cul- 
tured families  who,  though  not  provincial,  built  their  lives  around  their 
lovely  churches  and  beautiful  homes,  and  this  was  due  in  part  to  the  noble 
heritage  of  the  Augusta  College. 

These  were  the  families  of  Taylor,  Stevenson,  Powers,  Marshall,  Brad- 
ford, Harbeson,  Dunbar,  Gibbons,  Boude,  Hamilton,  Knoedler,  Reese,  Steen, 
Rankins,  Norris,  Wilson,  Armstrong,  McKibben,  Power,  Wittmeier,  Clark, 
Gray,  Patterson,  Cleveland,  Neider,  Reynolds,  Allen,  Ryan,  Winters,  Ful- 
kerson,  Weldon,  Walker,  Toleman,  Robbins,  Caden,  Myers,  Faber,  Diltz, 

Augusta  College  59 

Wood,  Hobday,  Ludwig,  Harris,  Asbury,  Robertson,  Bayless,  Blackerby, 
Hook  and  many  others. 

The  generations  that  were  to  follow  inherited  the  spirit  and  influence 
of  their  forebears,  and  have  become  prominent  statesmen,  doctors,  lawyers, 
journalists,  playwrights,  pharmacists,  dentists,  educational  leaders,  news- 
papermen, high  ranking  army  officers,  businessmen,  musicians,  and  have 
taken  their  part  in  world  affairs. 

The  many  fine  schools  that  followed  the  Augusta  College  also  played 
their  part  in  this  development. 

These  schools  have  given  an  outstanding  opportunity  for  education  to 
the  men  and  women  of  Bracken  and  the  surrounding  counties,  and  the 
culture  and  wealth  of  the  many  diversified  business  interests  of  Augusta 
are  due  in  part  to  their  influence. 

The  heads  of  these  business  and  civic  enterprises  were:  William  Gib- 
bons, J.  B.  Ryan,  William  J.  Rankins,  J.  Pike  Powers,  Charles  McCormick, 
Thomas  J.  Taylor,  T.  D.  Ryan,  J.  B.  Ryan,  S.  T.  Powers,  H.  C.  Liter,  Robert 
Liter,  W.  W.  Orr,  Henry  Sisson,  J.  S.  Orr,  Al.  Hurm,  G.  J.  Daum,  Lewis  Wei- 
mer,  John  Fleming,  John  Armer,  S.  D.  Keen,  John  Malkus,  C.  Stevalter, 
John  Bradley,  Frank  C.  McKibben,  John  Insko,  George  H.  McKibben, 
George  Kerans,  H.  B.  Asbury,  M.  W.  Hagen,  Major  John  Robbins,  Henry 
Bertram,  B.  F.  Ginn,  J.  E.  Dunbar,  B.  F.  Taylor,  J.  W.  McKibben,  W.  O. 
Holmes,  P.  B.  Powers,  S.  W.  McKibben,  Clarence  Hunter,  Mrs.  S.  D.  Crum- 
baugh,  Mrs.  Mattie  Russell,  L.  P.  Brockman,  John  Owens,  G.  W.  Edington, 
Charles  Hook,  John  O'Neill,  C.  A.  Reese,  Len  Wittmeier,  John  I.  Winter, 
William  McKibben,  Sr.,  J.  W.  Robbins,  James  Boude,  Charles  Federer, 
Richard  Lane,  John  Buerger,  William  Sayers,  F.  M.  Fulkerson,  Frank 
Barkley,  John  Kennard,  Milton  Taylor,  R.  P.  Yates,  William  Wittmeier, 
Isaac  Reynolds,  Dan  List,  John  T.  Jackson,  William  Work,  A.  D.  Pumpelly, 
Newton  Evans,  M.  T.  Flannery,  George  Given,  Charles  Bachman,  Louis 
Weber,  William  Clark,  George  Teegarden,  J.  R.  Wilson,  Frank  Bradley, 
Dr.  Charles  Rice,  James  A.  Thompson,  Edward  Thompson,  Dr.  R.  L.  Harvie, 
Dr.  Edwin  Smith,  Dr.  Joseph  Stoekle,  Dr.  H.  B.  Taylor,  John  Reisser,  M. 
Schweitzer,  John  Stroube,  F.  Anderson,  Lewis  Wolf,  Finley  Henderson, 
Louis  Jones,  Dr.  J.  E.  Robertson,  Charles  Bradley,  James  Reese,  Edwin 
Toleman,  C.  K.  Bradford,  William  Fields,  John  Gray,  W.  J.  Maloney,  and 

Notable  among  the  early  business  institutions  whose  influence  and 
trade  were  far  reaching  were:  The  Allen  and  Harbeson  Bank  of  William 
Allen,  John  M.  Harbeson  and  Benjamin  Harbeson;  The  Augusta  Milling 
Company  of  N.  J.  Stroube;  The  G.  W.  Moneyhan  Lumber  Co.;  The  John 
Oldham's  Cigar  Factory;  The  John  Cablish  Bakery;  The  Farm  Machinery 
business  of  A.  E.  Rankins;  The  L.  P.  Knoedler  and  Sons  Drug  Company  of 
L.  P.  Knoedler,  Philip  Knoedler,  Gibbons  Knoedler  and  A.  Robbins. 

60  Augusta  College 

Early  professional  men  were:  Master  Commissioner  J.  P.  Reese; 
Judge  J.  R.  Minor;  Dr.  M.  W.  Steen,  D.D.S.;  Joseph  Felix,  Attorney;  Judge 
George  Doniphan;  Dr.  S.  D.  Laughlin,  D.D.S.;  Dr.  A.  A.  Mannon;  Judge 
Matthew  Harbeson,  and  Dr.  J.  C.  Norris,  whose  wide  experience  and  medi- 
cal knowledge  made  him  one  of  Augusta's  most  valuable  men.  And  later 
Attorneys  M.  Hargett,  M.  J.  Hennessey,  Dr.  Joseph  Wittmeier,  and  Dr. 
Charles  G.  Steen,  D.D.S. 

The  men  who  followed  this  generation  and  those  who  are  continuing 
these  business  enterprises  and  professions  are  well-known  Augusta  men 
who  have  done  and  are  doing  their  part  to  uphold  the  high  standard  of 
their  predecessors. 

The  Masonic  Lodge,  Augusta  Lodge  No.  80,  F.  &  A.  M.,  was  the  first 
fraternal  organization  in  Augusta,  and  others  that  followed  added  interest 
and  good  will. 

Augusta  is  a  city  that  has  kept  abreast  of  the  times,  and,  realizing  the 
advent  of  an  industrial  period,  it  at  once  used  its  energy  and  time  to 
influence  industries  to  locate  here,  and  these  have  been  of  great  benefit 
to  the  city  and  surrounding  community.  These  include  the  F.  A.  Neider 
Company,  international  in  scope;  the  E.  H.  Huenefeld  Company,  manufac- 
turing Boss  washing  machines;  the  L.  V.  Marks  &  Sons  Company,  with  wide- 
spread interests  that  send  its  product  to  the  large  distributing  centers;  the 
Kentucky  Power  Company,  now  the  Kentucky  Utilities  Company,  a  large 
organization  that  is  state-wide,  and  the  Northeastern  Telephone  Company 
which  made  Augusta  one  of  the  first  small  cities  to  have  automatic  tele- 
phones, both  organized  by  Barrett  Waters  of  Cincinnati  and  Augusta; 
and  lately  the  Clopay  Corporation,  manufacturers  of  window  shades  and 

The  Mary  Inglis  scenic  highway,  skirting  the  Ohio  River,  will  pass 
through  Augusta. 

The  newspapers  contributed  in  their  way  to  the  preservation  of  the 
history  of  the  Augusta  College  by  recounting  its  activities  both  in  reports 
and  in  advertisements,  thus  keeping  alive  for  the  future  parts  of  the  story 
of  the  work  of  its  leaders  and  of  its  students.  Among  the  newspapers  pub- 
lished in  Augusta  in  the  early  1820s  were  the  Bracken  Sentinel  and  the 
Augusta  Watchman,  this  latter  owned  by  John  and  Johnson  Armstrong  of 
Maysville,  Kentucky,  and  later  by  Sarah  Armstrong.  The  Western  Watch- 
man, edited  and  published  by  H.  H.  Kavanaugh  for  James  Armstrong,  in 
1822.  The  Reflector,  edited  by  S.  Oglesby  and  E.  Carpenter  in  1829,  was 
the  newspaper  during  the  college  days,  and  the  Bracken  Chronicle  has 
been  owned  and  published  by  several  generations  of  the  Thompson  family. 

The  Knoedler  Memorial  Library,  given  by  Mr.  Philip  Knoedler,  of 
Chicago,  in  memory  of  his  parents  who  were  so  prominently  associated 

Augusta  College  61 

with  Augusta,  is  one  of  the  finest  small  library  buildings  of  Northern 

The  World  Wars  have  found  this  community  patriotic  and  loyal.  Its 
sons  and  daughters  have  performed  their  part  valiantly  and  not  without 
bravery  and  high  honor. 

Augusta  has  a  Rotary,  Lions,  American  Legion  and  Veterans  of  For- 
eign Wars  organizations  and  prominent  social  clubs,  modern  business  es- 
tablishments and  is  a  city  of  lovely  homes  and  congenial  people. 

62  Augusta  College 


Augusta,  a  jewel  of  a  town,  set  in  a  favored  spot,  rimmed 
by  green  hills,  fronted  by  the  majestic  Ohio  River  so  strikingly 
beautiful  for  a  long  stretch,  with  its  vista  of  radiant  sunsets, 
has  a  history  of  nostalgic  memories,  a  history  that  has  played 
an  important  part  in  the  world's  progress. 

The  founders  of  the  Augusta  College,  first  Methodist  Col- 
lege, were  wise  in  choosing  this  beautiful  site  for  it  also  offered 
the  charm  of  homes  of  culture  to  be  enjoyed  by  the  students, 
who  carried  into  their  new  environments  the  impressions 
gained  here  in  college,  church  and  home.  Here  were  great 
minds  to  light  the  torch  of  thought  and  thus  stimulate  the 
younger  men  to  greater  fields  of  endeavor. 

Christian  morals  and  zeal,  dignity  of  learning  and  gra- 
cious living,  the  discipline  of  mind  and  the  growth  of  char- 
acter, all  were  here  to  help  mold  to  the  advantage  of  the 
world  at  large.  It  was  not  an  ingrown  effort,  but  one  that 
was  far-flung  and  widely  effective. 

The  achievements  of  the  Augusta  College  comprise  a  page 
in  the  history  of  Methodism  and  of  Kentucky  that  is  a  high 
honor  to  both  community  and  state. 

Nostalgic  memories  will  ever  turn  back  to  those  active 
days  with  grateful  thoughts  and  hopes  for  the  future.  Al- 
though the  college  is  no  longer  in  existence  its  influence  is 
felt  down  through  the  years  for,  like  the  stately  river  on  whose 
bank  it  flourished,  the  importance  of  this  first  Methodist 
College  will  long  endure. 

'Where  the  River  Runs  in  a  Direct  Course  for  Several  Miles" 

Augusta  College 



Acies,  Rev.  Peter,  28. 

Adair,  William,  32. 

Adams,  family,  54. 

Aldredge,  Robert,  34. 

Allbreck,  J.  S.,  32. 

Allen  &  Harbeson  Bank,  59. 

Allen,  William,  29. 

American  Legion,  61. 

Ancient  remains,  14. 

Anderson,  Edward  L.,  34. 

Anderson,  F.,  59. 

Anderson,  Joseph  H.,  34. 

Anderson,  Richard  H.,  34. 

Anderson,  W.  W.,  32. 

Anderson,  William  J.,  34. 

Ankeney,  B.  F.,  32. 

Armer,  John,  59. 

Armstrong,  A.  C,  56. 

Armstrong,  James,  16,  26,  30,  34,  53,  54. 

Armstrong,  John,  22,  28. 

Armstrong,  T.  H.,  29. 

Arnold,  W.  E.,  Hist,  of  Methodism  in 
Kentucky,  ftn.  21,  23,  26. 

Asbury,  H.  B.,  59. 

Augusta,  Kentucky,  Board  of  Health,  18; 
Business  and  civic  enterprises,  50- 
60;  Clubs,  61;  County  Seat,  19;  Doc- 
tors, 18;  Early  history,  16;  Ferries, 
see;  First  business  (hatter's),  18; 
Founded  15,  17-18;  Library,  60;  Lo- 
cation, 13;  Market  House  &  Laws, 
18;  Masonic  Lodge,  60;  Newspapers, 
see;  Plat  of,  20;  Professional  men, 
60;  Schools,  see;  Streets  and  roads, 
17,  19,  23,  50;  Water  system,  18. 

Augusta  Chronicle,  60. 

Augusta  Churches,  57;  Augusta  Presby- 
terian, Methodist  Episcopal,  Augusta 
Baptist,  St.  Paul's  Methodist  (col- 
ored), St.  Augustine's  Catholic,  Au- 
gusta Christian,  First  Church  of  the 
Nazarene,  Pilgrim  Holiness. 

Augusta  College,  1822-1849;  Alumni,  28 
et  seq.;  By-laws,  ftn.  24,  39;  Closing 
1849,  50;  Commencement,  24,  43; 
Curriculum,  24,  40  et  seq.;  Expenses, 
24;  Faculty,  26,  et  seq.;  Founded,  21, 
23,  24  et  seq.,  60,  62;  Honorary  de- 

gree LL.D.,  47;  Library,  40;  Literary 
societies,  31,  32,  33,  49;  Pledge,  40; 
Professorships,  44. 

Augusta  families,  58. 

Augusta  Female  College,  56. 

Augusta  Male  &  Female  College,  56. 

Augusta  Milling  Co.,  59. 

Bachman,  Charles,  59. 

Bailie,  R.  R.,  34. 

Bailie,  William,  34. 

Bakery,  59. 

Ball,  Spencer  J.,  34. 

Bank,  see  Allen  &  Harbeson. 

Barker,  ,  16,  34. 

Barkley,  Frank,  59. 

Barrere,  Granville,  32. 

Barrere,  Nelson,  34. 

Bascom,  A.,  34. 

Bascom,  Rev.  Henry  B.,  21,  26,  42,  43,  49. 

Bate,  John  T.,  34. 

Battle  of  Augusta,  51  et  seq. 

Beech,  Erasmus  D.,  34. 

Beecher,  Lyman,  51. 

Beel  and  Brown,  16. 

"Belfast,"  U.S.S.,  52. 

Bennett,  Prince,  32. 

Berry,  L.  H.,  32. 

Betram,  Henry,  59. 

Best,  Jacob,  34. 

Bettas,  E.,  32. 

Biddison,  Aaron,  34. 

Bishop,  D.  H.,  34. 

Bishop,  J.  H.,  34. 

Black,  Joseph,  32. 

Blackburn,  Senator  Joe,  7,  58. 

Blades,  Foster  H.,  32. 

Blanchard,  John,  16,  17. 

Bland,  J.  C,  32. 

Bluett,  Prof.  B.  T.,  56. 

Bonton,  John,  32. 

Boss  Washing  Machine  Co.,  60. 

Boude,  Duval  Payne,  32. 

Boude,  James,  59. 

Boude,  John,  16,  32. 

Boude,  John  A.,  29. 

Boude's  ferry,  see  ferries. 

Bracken  Co.,  Ky.,  16. 


Augusta  College 

Bracken  Academy,  17,  23,  56. 

Bracken  Chronicle,  1871,  56. 

Bracken  Female  Academy,  56. 

Bracken  Sentinel,  1820,  60. 

Bradford,  C.  K.,  59. 

Bradford,  J.  T.,  51. 

Bradford,  Dr.  Jonathan,  18,  27. 

Bradford,  Johnson,  28. 

Bradford,  Dr.  Joshua,  30,  49,  55. 

Bradford,  L.  J.,  51. 

Bradford,  Laura,  27. 

Bradford,  Margaret  Marshall,  28. 

Bradford,  Dr.  T.  T.,  29. 

Bradford,  Dr.  Thomas  Stuart,  27,  28. 

Brading,  G.,  34. 

Bradley,  Charles,  59. 

Bradley,  Frank,  59. 

Bradley,  John,  59. 

Bradshaw,  John  S.,  34,  43. 

Breathitt,  Gov.  John,  30. 

Breathitt,  John  W.,  30,  32. 

Britt,  Prof.  ,  57. 

Broadwell,  J.  E.,  32. 

Brockman,  L.  P.,  59. 

Brooks,  F.  C,  32. 

Brooks,  Karl  H.,  32. 

Brooks,  Ransom,  34,  37,  38. 

Brooks,  William,  16,  17. 

Brooksville,  Ky.,  19. 

Broshiers,  Thomas,  16. 

Brown  and  Beel,  16. 

Brown,  Judge  George  N.,  31. 

Brown,  J.  H.,  32. 

Brown,  John,  23. 

Brown,  W.  R.,  34. 

Brunnell,  David,  16. 

Bryan,  William  Jennings,  58. 

Bryant's  Show  Boat,  58. 

Buckner,  Philip,  15,  16,  17,  18,  19. 

Buckner,  Philip,  Chapter  D.  A.  R.,  56. 

Buckner,  William,  16,  19,  28,  32. 

Buckner,  William  I.  T.,  34. 

Buerger,  John,  59. 

Business  firms,  see  list,  59. 

Cabell,  Charles,  34. 
Cablish,  John,  bakery,  59. 
Caldwell,  Dr.  Charles,  36. 
Caldwell,  James,  17. 
Campbell,  William,  34,  43. 
Carey,  John  L.,  34. 
Carnal,  Ruben  H.,  32. 
Carneal,  Thomas  D.,  28. 

Carson,  Samuel,  32. 
Carter,  Thomas,  34. 
Cartwright,  Peter,  23. 
Case,  Goldsmith,  16. 
Cassett,  John  W.,  34. 

Cassell,  Capt.  ,  53. 

Cassiday,  George,  32. 

Castleman,  J.  B.,  51. 

Chalfant,  L.  A.  W.,  32. 

Chambers,  Gov.  of  Iowa  Terr.,  John,  27. 

Chambers,  Joseph,  34. 

Chambrun,  Countess  de,  29. 

Chapman,  A.,  27,  41,  44. 

Chew,  Philemon  L.,  34. 

Chew,  Wallers  S.,  34. 

Chiles,  David,  32. 

Churches,  in  Augusta,  57. 

Cigar  factory,  59. 

Clark,  Austin  M.,  31,  32. 

Clark,  G.  P.,  32. 

Clark,  George  H.  R.,  34. 

Clark,  J.  B.,  29. 

Clark,  James  R.,  34. 

Clark,  Joshua  A.,  34. 

Clark,  Milton  E.,  31,  32. 

Clark,  William,  59. 

Clay,  Cassius  M.,  29. 

Clay,  Frederick  P.,  34. 

Clay,  Hon.  Henry,  36,  51. 

Cleveland,  Francis  L.,  27,  32,  51. 

Cleveland,  Pres.  Grover,  27. 

Cleveland,  Justice  Harlan,  27. 

Clift,  G.  Glenn,  7. 

Clinton,  L.  A.,  34. 

Cline,  D.  S.,  7. 

Clopay   Corp.,  window  shades,   plastics, 

Clubs,  61. 
Cobb,  Stephen,  34. 
Coburn,  Mrs.  Mary,  51. 
Cochrain,  J.  T.,  32. 
Cochran,  John,  34. 
Cokesbury  College,  Md.,  23. 
Coleman,  Dr.  J.  Winston,  Jr.,  7. 
Coleman,  James,  17. 
Collard,  William  A.,  32. 
Collins,  Louis,  Hist,  of  Ky.,  ftn.  13,  14,  23. 
Collins,  J.  B.,  32. 
Collins,  Rev.  John,  21. 
Colson,  Thomas  R.,  32. 
Commonwealth,    The,    Frankfort,     Ky., 

1835,  44. 
Cook,  A.  B.,  32. 

Augusta  College 


Cook,  William  P.,  34,  43. 
Cookrill,  Granville  L.,  34. 
Corwine,  Richard,  23. 
Cotton,  J.  B.,  32. 
Cotton,  J.  W.,  32. 
Cotton,  M.  B.,  32. 
Cougill,  W.  H.,  32. 
Crain,  Rev.  O.  S.,  7. 
Cramer,  Zadok,  13. 
Crawford,  Alexander,  34. 
Crossman,  Henrietta,  48. 
Crouch,  Marshall,  7. 
Crumbaugh,  Mrs.  S.  D.,  59. 
Cummins,  Alexander,  21. 
Cunningham,  J.  W.,  ftn.  37. 
Curren,  Sam  C,  32. 

Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution, 

Philip  Buckner  Chapter,  56. 
Dacey,  William,  32. 
Damarat,  M.  F.,  32. 
Damron,  I.  C,  35. 
Daum,  G.  J.,  59. 
David,  Joseph  L.,  34. 
Davis,  David,  16. 
Davis,  Frederick  A.,  27. 
David,  John,  16. 
Davis,  Joseph  W.,  43. 
Davis,  Robert,  16. 
Davis,  Robert  V.,  35. 
Deem,  Adam  C,  35. 
Dickore,  Marie,  7. 
Diltz,  Abraham,  32. 
Diltz,  Watson,  54. 
Dobyns,  Thomas,  34. 
Doniphan,  Gen.  Alexander  W.,  29. 
Doniphan,  George,  28,  29,  60. 
Doniphan,  Joseph,  16,  30,  51. 
Doniphan,  W.  A„  32. 
Donavan,  James,  16. 
Drug  Co.,  Knoedler,  59. 
DuBose,  D.,  32. 
Duke,  Col.  Basil,  51  et  seq. 
Duke,  G.  F.,  32. 
Dunbar,  J.  E.,  59. 
Durbin,  John  P.,  26. 
Dutten,  George  W.,  35. 
Dyas,  Charles,  34. 
Dowsing,  William,  34. 

Ebert,  Philip,  16. 
Eckstein,  Frederick,  27. 
Edington,  G.  W.,  59. 

Edmondson,  Henry,  32. 
Edwards,  Col.  Orange,  54. 
Edwards,  William  H.,  32. 
Ellington,  J.  W.,  32. 
Elliott,  Collins,  35. 
Elliott,  W.  R.,  32. 
Ellis,  Robert  B.,  35. 
Espy,  L.  S.,  34. 
Evans,  Daniel,  34. 
Evans,  Newton,  59. 
Evening  Herald,  The,  36. 

Family  Magazine,  1838,  ftn.  24,  25. 

Farm  machinery,  Rankins,  59. 

Farrer,  Frederick,  35. 

Farrer,  Thomas  P.,  35. 

Federer,  Charles,  59. 

Fee,  John  Gregg,  17,  28. 

Fee,  Rev.  W.  I.,  36. 

Felix,  Joseph,  60. 

Ferries,  5,  25,  40,  49. 

Fetstone,  James  B.,  32. 

Field,  Silas  H.,  32. 

Field,  Cyrus,  30. 

Field,  Curtis,  30,  32. 

Field,  Judge  Emmett,  30. 

Field,  Larkin,  30. 

Field,  O.  H,  32. 

Field,  Silas,  30. 

Field,  Stephen,  30. 

Fields,  William,  59. 

Finley,  Rev.  James,  28. 

Finley,  Rev.  John  P.,  22,  25,  26. 

Finley,  Rev.  Robert,  25. 

Flannery,  M.  T.,  59. 

Fleming,  John,  59. 

Florey,  D.,  34. 

Folkes,  R.,  32. 

Foster,  Asa,  35. 

Foster,  Eliza  Tomlinson,  26. 

Foster,  Henrietta,  48. 

Foster,  Israel,  28. 

Foster,  Jeremiah  H,  34. 

Foster,  Polly  Kain,  28. 

Foster,  Randolph  Sinks,  28. 

Foster,  Stephen  Collins,  7,  26,  47. 

Foster,  William,  26. 

Foster,  William  B.,  Jr.,  47. 

Fox,  Benjamin  F.,  32. 

French,  Capt.  A.  B.,  31. 

Friday  Courier,  36. 

Fulkerson,  F.  M.,  59. 


Augusta  College 

Gains,  E.  P.,  32. 

Gano,  Richard  M.,  17. 

Garland,  H.  S.,  35. 

Garlinghouse,  Jesse,  34. 

Gatch,  Rev.  Philip,  29. 

Gatch,  Dr.  Philip  D.,  29. 

Gephart,  J.  J.,  55. 

Gibbons,  William,  32,  59. 

Gibson,  W.  M.,  35. 

Gilkeson,  Mrs.  Crawford,  7. 

Gill,  Henry  E,  35. 

Gilmore,  Gorden  R.,  35. 

Ginn,  B.  F.,  59. 

Gissan,  Henry  V.,  32. 

Given,  George,  59. 

Goddard,  A.,  32. 

Goodloe,  Davis  S.,  35. 

Gordy,  William  S.,  32. 

Grafton,  George,  32. 

Grant,  Orvil,  35. 

Gray,  Prof.  E.  W.,  27,  34. 

Gray,  John,  59. 

Gray,  S.  S.,  34. 

Grayson,  W.  P.,  35. 

Green,  Abner,  35. 

Gregg,  W.,  55. 

Griffin,  George  J.,  35. 

Griffin,  John  S.,  35. 

Griffin,  O.,  32. 

Groesbeck,  William  S.  of  Cincinnati,  29, 

Gross,  John  Owens,  Christian  Advocate, 

1836,  ftn.  23. 
Grosvenor,  Charles,  31. 
Groves,  G.  W.,  32. 
Gum,  William,  32. 

Hagen,  M.  W.,  59. 
Haile,  Thomas  L.,  35. 
Haille,  Thomas  P.,  38. 
Hall,  Alfred  J.,  31. 
Hall,  Calvin  D.,  31. 
Hall,  S.  P.,  34. 
Hall,  Thomas  J.,  Jr.,  31. 
Hall,  William  C,  31. 
Hamilton,  E.  W.,  32. 
Hamilton,  R.  P.,  29. 
Hamilton,  T.  S.,  29. 
Hamilton,  William  P.,  35. 
Harbeson,  Mrs.  Ben,  7. 
Harbeson,  Benjamin,  59. 
Harbeson,  Georgie,  7. 
Harbeson,  John  M.,  59. 

Harbeson,  Judge  Matthew,  60. 
Hardwick,  G.  M.,  34. 
Hargett,  M.,  60. 
Harmon,  J.  W.,  35. 
Harmon,  Z.,  18,  19. 
Harris,  W.  A.,  32. 
Harrison,  George  H.,  35. 

Harrison,  Prof. ,  27. 

Harrison,  William  Henry,  14,  28. 
Harvie,  Alberta,  7. 
Harvie,  Dr.  R.  L.,  59. 
Hawkins,  John  O.  T.,  28. 
Height,  John,  34. 
Helm,  Mrs.  Mark,  7. 

Henderson,  Mr.  ,  18. 

Henderson,  Finley,  59. 

Hennessey,  M.  J.,  60. 

Henry,  William,  17. 

Higgs,  Jonathan,  14. 

Hinde,  James  B.,  35. 

Hinze,  W.  E.,  34. 

Hodges,  Fletcher,  Jr.,  7. 

Holliday,  Charles,  21,  23. 

Holman,  William,  21,  23. 

Holmes,  Rev.  George  S.,  43. 

Holmes,  W.  O.,  59. 

Holton,  Augustus  F.,  35. 

Hook,  Charles,  59. 

Hook,  Reynolds,  29. 

Hopple,  Matthews  F.,  35,  43. 

Hord,  William,  16. 

Hotels,  Bodman,  Smith,  Parkview,  58. 

Howell,  Edward,  32. 

Howell,  Elijah,  32. 

Howell,  Thomas,  32. 

Howk,  Mrs.  ,  54. 

Howk,  Tom,  drug  store,  54. 

Hubs,  Dana,  32. 

Hughes,  John  T.,  Doniphan's  Expedition, 

ftn.  30. 
Hulbert,  William  P.  F.,  29,  35. 
Humphrey,  James,  32. 
Huenefeld,  E.  H.  Co.,  60. 
Hunt,  John,  16. 
Hunter,  Clarence,  59. 
Hurm,  Al,  59. 
Huston,  Judge  George,  30. 

Ingles,  Thomas,  28. 

Inglis,  Mary  Inglis  Highway,  60. 

Insko,  John,  59. 

Irwin,  ,  27. 

Augusta  College 


Jackson,  J.  B.,  35. 

Jackson,  James  Madison,  Va.,  43. 

Jackson,  John  T.,  59. 

James,  E.,  32. 

James,  John  H.,  mss,  ftn.  27. 

Jefferson  Chronicle,  The,  36. 

Jefferson  Literary  Society,  31,  34,  36,  49. 

Jefferson  Medical  College,  27. 

Jennings,  James  W.,  29. 

Johnson,  Gen.  A.  S.,  31. 

Johnson,  Herman,  27. 

Johnson,  John,  23. 

Johnson,  William,  35. 

Jones,  Charles  A.,  35. 

Jones,  Louis,  59. 

Jones,  William,  35. 

Jones,  William  F.,  34. 

Jordon,  Francis,  32. 

Kavanaugh,  Rev.  H.  H.,  43. 
Keen,  S.  D.(  59. 
Keene,  Richard,  18. 
Keener,  Moses  H.,  35. 

Kennett,  Capt.  ,  53. 

Keith,  Dr.  Anderson,  16. 

Keith,  John  R.,  32. 

Keith,  Dr.  William,  54. 

Kemp,  J.  L.,  27. 

Kennard,  John,  59. 

Kennedy,  Phillip,  34. 

Kentucky  Gazette,  The,  1795,  ftn.  15. 

Kentucky  Power  Co.,  60 

Kentucky  Utilities  Co.,  60 

Kentucky  Wesleyan  College,  57. 

Kerans,  George,  59. 

Key,  Thomas  Marshall,  28,  43,  51. 

Kilgour,  David,  14. 

Kincheloe,  Charles  R.,  35. 

King,  Lt. ,  53. 

King,  F.  D.,  32. 

King,  F.  E.,  32. 

King,  F.  P.,  32. 

King,  I.  W.,  33. 

King,  Richard  E.,  35. 

King,  Rodney,  35. 

Kinney,  James,  57. 

Knoedler,  Gibbons,  59. 

Knoedler,  L.  P.  &  Sons,  Drug  Co.,  59. 

Knoedler,  Memorial  Library,  60. 

Knoedler,  Philip,  54,  59. 

Lackie,  Henry,  33. 

Lakin,  William  B.,  34. 

Lamborn,  Josiah,  34,  37. 

Landen,  Charles  A.,  55. 

Lane,  E.  M.,  33. 

Lane,  Richard,  59. 

Landrum,  Francis,  28. 

Lauderbach,  Mrs.  Mary  Armstrong,  56. 

Laughlin,  Dr.  S.  D.,  60. 

Lawrence,  Edward,  35. 

Lawrence,  Josiah,  28. 

Leanord,  S.  L.,  34. 

Lee,  ,  16. 

Leener,  W.  T.,  34. 
Leigh,  Benjamin  Watkins,  43. 
Leigh,  James,  35. 
Leinn,  G.  W.,  33,  35. 
Lewis,  Samuel,  28. 
Lewis,  William  B.,  35. 
Library,  Knoedler  Memorial,  60;  Augus- 
ta College,  40. 
Light,  George  C,  23,  28. 
Lilly,  Josiah  K.,  7. 
Lincoln,  Abraham,  57. 
Lindsay,  Marcus,  21,  23. 
Linney,  H.  M.,  33. 
Lions,  61. 
List,  Dan,  59. 
Liter,  H.  C,  59. 
Liter,  Robert,  59. 
Littell,  William,  ftn.  17. 
Lock,  Jesse,  34. 
Lock,  Stephen,  34. 
Locke,  I.,  33. 
Locke,  John  H.,  33. 
Lodwick,  Preston,  35. 
Logan,  Joseph,  16,  17. 
Long,  George,  35. 
Long,  John,  35. 
Longworth,  Clara,  29. 
Longworth,  Joseph,  29. 
Longworth,  Nicholas,  29. 
Love,  Edward,  34. 
Loving,  Robert  G.,  34,  43. 
Lumber,  59. 
Lynch,  Thomas  H.,  27. 

McAfee,  Robert,  13. 
McCasland,  H.,  34. 
McClain,  Charles,  16,  17. 
McCleary,  John,  28. 
McConthy,  John,  33. 
McCormick,  Charles,  59. 


Augusta  College 

McCormick,  John  E.,  16,  18,  54. 
McCown,  Rev.  B.  H.,  27,  41,  44. 
McCracken,  Eliza,  56. 

McCullom,  Dr.  ,  36. 

McDowell,  John,  28. 
McDowell,  Gen.  Joseph,  30. 
McDowell,  Dr.  William,  31. 
McDowell,  William,  33. 
McFarland,  Robert  White,  30. 
Mclntyre,  Alexander,  34. 
Mclntyre,  Thomas  G.,  35. 
McKay,  Josiah  M.,  33. 
McKibben,  Alpheus,  55. 
McKibben,  Frank  C,  59. 
McKibben,  George  H.,  59. 
McKibben,  Joseph  T.,  28,  54. 
McKibben,  J.  D.,  29. 
McKibben,  J.  W.,  59. 
McKibben,  W.  S.,  51,  59. 
McKibben,  William,  Sr.,  59. 
McMillion,  Samuel,  17. 
McLean,  Hon.  John,  28. 

McLeod,  Mr.  ,  27. 

McNeal,  James,  33. 

McNelly,  George,  23. 

Mackey,  Dr.  George  W.,  16,  17,  28. 

Mackie,  W.  H.,  33. 

Magruder,  A.  L.  C,  34. 

Magruder,  Hillary,  35. 

Magruder,  William,  35. 

Maloney,  W.  J.,  59. 

Mannon,  Dr.  A.  A.,  60. 

Market  House,  Augusta,  18. 

Marks,  L.  V.  &  Sons  Co.,  60. 

Marshall,  George,  33. 

Marshall,  George  Catlett,  27. 

Marshall,  George  Catlett,  Jr.,  28,  51. 

Marshall,  John,  16. 

Marshall,  Chief  Justice  John,  27. 

Marshall,  Marie,  28. 

Marshall,  Martin,  16,  22,  27,  30. 

Marshall,  Nicholas  B.  T.,  30,  35. 

Marshall,  Stuart,  27. 

Marshall,  Vice-Pres.  Thomas  A.,  35,  58. 

Marshall,  Thornton  F.,  29,  51,  54. 

Marshall,  Rev.  William,  27. 

Marshall,  William  Champe,  27,  28,  51,  53. 

Marshall,  William  S.,  27. 

Martin,  M.  C,  33. 

Mason,  Ky.,  Land  Book,  ftn.  14. 

Masonic  Lodge,  Augusta  Lodge  No.  80, 

F.  &  A.  M.,  60. 
Masterton,  Richard,  14. 

Matthews,  J.  McDowell,  30. 

Matthews,  W.  M.,  33. 

Mears,  John,  28. 

Meek,  Rev.  John,  28. 

Meek,  William  S.,  35. 

Melvin,  Samuel,  34. 

Meranda,  Isaac,  16. 

Meranda,  James,  16. 

Mercer,  William  Newton,  13. 

Merwin,  Rev.  John  B.,  31,  43. 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  57. 

Miley,  John  W.,  28. 

Miller,  U.S.S.  "Florence  Miller,"  52. 

Miller,  William  C,  33. 

Milner,  T.  E.,  58. 

Minor,  Gideon,  28. 

Minor,  Judge  J.  R.,  60. 

Mitchell,  Richard,  57. 

Moneyhan,  G.  W.  Lumber  Co.,  59. 

Monroe,  Sidney  H.,  35. 

Moore,  H.,  33. 

Morgan's  Cavalry,  51  et  seq. 

Morgan,  Col.  John  Hunt,  53. 

Morgan,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kendall,  57. 

Morgan,  Capt.  Sam,  53. 

Morris,  B.  F.,  34,  49. 

Morris,  Dickinson,  16,  17. 

Morris,  Joseph,  16. 

Morris,  Thomas  A.,  23. 

Morton,  Thomas,  33. 

Muing,  John,  33. 

Murphy,  C.  W.,  33. 

Murray,  Alfred,  33. 

Myers,  Alfred  I.  N.,  33. 

Myers,  Mrs.  Bell,  17. 

Myers,  Thomas,  25,  53,  54. 

Nailer,  Daniel  B.,  35. 

Nash,  F.,  33. 

Nash,  G.  M.,  33. 

Nash,  James  L.,  33. 

Nash,  Stephen  E.,  35. 

Neider,  F.  A.,  60. 

Nelson,  Thomas,  16. 

Newspapers,  Augusta  Herald,  25;  Au- 
gusta Chronicle,  25,  60;  Augusta 
Watchman,  60;  Bracken  Sentinel, 
1820,  19,  60;  Bracken  Chronicle,  56; 
Cynthiana  Observer,  1825,  25;  The 
Reflector,  1829,  60;  Western  Watch- 
man, 1822,  60;  Zion's  Advocate,  22. 

Augusta  College 


Nixon,  Samuel,  35. 
Norris,  Dr.  J.  C,  60. 
Northeastern  Telephone  Co.,  60. 
Nottingham,  W.,  33. 

Oglesby,  John  H.,  35. 

Oldham,  John,  Cigar  factory,  59. 

O'Neill,  John,  59. 

Orr,  J.  S.,  59. 

Orr,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  S.,  56. 

Orr,  Will  W.,  33,  59. 

Ovny,  John  W.,  33. 

Owens,  John,  59. 

Patterson,  Abraham,  16. 

Patterson,  Nathaniel,   16,  17. 

Patterson,  Robert,  54. 

Pattie,  John,  17. 

Paxton,  William,   The  Marshall  Family, 

Payne,  S.  W.,  33. 
Payne,  John,  14,  16,  28. 
Penyton,  William  D.,  33. 
Perkins,  John,  55. 
Perrin,  W.  H.,  ftn.,  Kentucky  History  of 

the  State,  1888,  30. 
Perryman,  John  W.,  35. 
Phillips,  Charles  M.,  35,  43. 
Phister,  Elijah  C,  33. 
Pierce,  W.  R.,  33. 
Plastics,  Clopay  Corp.,  60. 
Pogeke,  J.  L.,  33. 
Pollock,  Dr.  Alfred  H.,  34,  38. 
Portes,   David,   34. 
Porter,  A.  Bruce,  33. 

Portis,  Mr. ,  37. 

Poulson,  Robert  J.,  31. 

Powell,  Alfred,  28. 

Power,  Benjamin  F.,  29,  33. 

Powers,  F.  L.,  29. 

Powers,  Hiram,  27. 

Powers,  J.  Pike,  59. 

Powers,  James  A.,  29. 

Powers,  John  R.,  35. 

Powers,  P.  B.,  29,  59. 

Powers,  Mrs.  Robert  B.,  7. 

Powers,  S.  T.,  51,  59. 

Powers,  Thomas,  33. 

Prentice,  George  D.,  of  Louisville,  Ky., 

Prentice,  Lt.  William  Courtland,  53. 
Preston,  John,  Va.,  31. 
Preston,  Gen.  William,  31,  35. 

Price,  Henry  B.,  35. 
Price,  L.,  33. 
Prinz,  Julia,  Va.,  56. 
Prinz,  Louise,  Va.,  56. 

Puckett,  Pvt.  ,  53. 

Pugh,  Congressman,  Sam,  58. 
Pumpelly,  A.  D.,  59. 
Purer,  W.  C,  33. 

Quinn,  John  H.,  33. 

Rabb,  Charles,  35. 

Ranels,  Job  B.,  33. 

Rankin,  Miss  Belle,  57. 

Rankins,  Albert  Edwin,  3,  59. 

Rankins,  B.  H.,  51. 

Rankins,  B.  S.,  29. 

Rankins,  Emma  Taylor,  3. 

Rankins,   Walter   H.,   Morgan's    Cavalry 

and  the  Home  Guard,  Augusta,  Ky., 

ftn.  54,  55. 
Rankins,  Will,  7. 
Rankins,  William  J.,  see  Silverthorn,  33, 

Raynolds,  O.  P.,  33. 
Rees,  John,  34,  35. 
Reese,  Addison,  34,  38. 
Reese,  C.  A.,  59. 
Reese,  J.  P.,  60. 
Reese,  James,  59. 
Rehy,  Samuel  H.,  33. 
Reisser,  John,  59. 
Reynolds,  Isaac,  59. 
Rice,  Dr.  Charles,  59. 
Richey,  J.  C,  35. 
Ricks,  J.  W.,  34. 
Riggs,  Paul,  34. 
Right,  Pascal  F.,  35. 
Ring,  Walter,  33. 

Robbins,  Prof.  ,  27. 

Robbins,  Augustus,  35,  59. 

Robbins,  J.  W.,  59. 

Robbins,  Maj.  John,  59. 

Roberts,  Lt.  Greenberry,  53. 

Robertson,  C.  E.,  29. 

Robertson,  E.  W.,  33. 

Robertson,  George,  Chief  Justice  of  Ky 

Robertson,  Dr.  J.  E.,  59. 
Robertson,  William  H.,  35. 
Robinson,  John,  Circus,  58. 
Robinson,  George  W.,  34. 
Robinson,  Luke,  35. 


Augusta  College 

-,  53. 

Rogers,  Rev.  

Rogers,  Capt.  Whip,  53. 
Rossel,  Stephen  S.,  35. 
Roszell,  John,  34. 
Roszell,  Samuel,  34. 

Rozel,  Mr.  ,  37. 

Rucker,  Henry  L.,  35. 
Rudd,  P.  H.,  51. 
Russell,  William,  33. 
Russell,  Mrs.  Mattie,  59. 
Russell  Hall,  58. 
Russell,  Sol.  Smith,  58. 
Rust,  John,  13. 
Rust,  Matthews,  13. 
Ruter,  Augustus  W.,  34. 
Ruter,  Rev.  Martin,  21,  26,  36. 
Ruter,  Philander  S.,  35. 
Ryan,  D.  L.,  33. 
Ryan,  J.  B.,  51,  54,  59. 
Ryan,  James,  35. 
Ryan,  T.  D.,  59. 

Salter,  William,  33. 
Sanford,  Joseph  P.,  36. 
Savage,  Dr.  C.  S.,  33. 
Savage,  Rev.  Francis  A.,  28. 
Savage,  Dr.  George,  23. 
Savage,  Rev.  James,  28. 
Savage,  William,  59. 
Schoolfield,  John,  16. 
Schoolfield,  Joseph,  28. 
Schoolfield,  Robert,  16. 
Schoolfield,  William,  36. 
Schweitzer,  M.,  59. 
Scott,  C.  O.,  33. 

Sedam,  Capt.  ,  52. 

Sell,  F.  M.,  33. 

Sells,  John,  16. 

Sessions,  Joseph  W.,  35. 

Shaefer,  Henry  A.,  33. 

Shaifer,  Stephen  P.,  33. 

Shakleford,  Samuel  R.,  35. 

Shepherd,  Chancy  B.,  35. 

Short,  Jonathan,  33. 

Shropshire,  Squire  G.,  28. 

Showboat,  Bryant's,  58. 

Silverthorn,  Jane,  Va.,  56. 

Simmons,  Thomas  Jefferson  Nicholas,  34. 

Simmons,  W.  L.  S.,  34. 

Simpson,  Dr.  ,  27. 

Simpson,  Thomas,  34. 

Singer,  Dr.  ,  28. 

Sisson,  Henry,  59. 

Sisson,  S.  H.,  33. 

Slavery  Question,  18,  47,  48. 

Smith,  E.  W.,  33. 

Smith,  Dr.  Edwin,  59. 

Smith,  Henry,  35. 

Smith,  John  K.,  33. 

Smith,  Joseph  A.,   17. 

Smith,  Kirby,  54. 

Smith,  Milton  C,  33. 

Smith,  Robert,  16. 

Smith,  Samuel,  33. 

Smith,  Samuel  H.,  35. 

Smith,  Samuel  P.,  43. 

Smith,  William  B.,  35. 

Snider,  J.,  34. 

Southall,  Joseph  J.  B.,  35. 

Soule,  Bishop  Joshua,  25,  27. 

Soule,  W.  M.,  33. 

Spawling,  P.  S.,  34. 

Spencer,  A.  O.,  38. 

Spencer,  Alexander  D.,  34. 

Spencer,  Francis  W.,  36. 

Spencer,  Rev.  Oliver  M.,  28. 

Spencer,  Samuel  A.,  36,  43. 

Spencer,  Samuel  C,  34. 

Spiker,  Baldwin  H.,  36. 

Stairs,  Oliver,  55. 

Stamper,  Jonathan,  23,  43. 

Starkey,  I.  R.,  34. 

Starkey,  William  G,  34. 

Starks,  David,  hatter's  shop,  16,  18. 

Steen,  Dr.  Charles  G,  60. 

Steen,  Dr.  M.  W.,  60. 

Sterling,  R.  G,  49. 

Stevalter,  C,  59. 

Stevenson,  Rev.  Daniel,  23,  57. 

Stewart,  W.  H,  27,  34,  37. 

Stiles,  David  M.,  35. 

Stiles,  William  M.,  35. 

Stockton,  Lucien  D.,  36,  43. 

Stockwell,  John,  33. 

Stoeckle,  Dr.  Joseph,  59. 

Stone,  Richard  A.,  33. 

Story,  John  B.,  55. 

Stoudemire,  Glenn  G.,  36. 

Stowe,  Harriet  Beecher,  51. 

Stroube,  John,  59. 

Stroube,  N.  J.,  59. 

Students'  names,  32-36. 

Swayze,  Caleb  L.,  36. 

Swormstedt,  Rev.  Leroy,  43. 

Augusta  College 


Taft,  Hulbert,  29. 

Taft,  Peter  R.,  29. 

Taft,  Pres.  William  Howard,  29. 

Taliaferro, ,  16,  27. 

Targowski,  Charles,  43,  44. 

Taylor,  B.  F.,  59. 

Taylor,  Benjamin,  33. 

Taylor,  Carolyn,  7. 

Taylor,  Emma,  see  Rankins. 

Taylor,  Dr.  H.  B.,  59. 

Taylor,  John,  51. 

Taylor,  Milton,  59. 

Taylor,  Thomas,  59. 

Taylor,  Dr.  William  H.,  29,  55. 

Taylor,  W.  P.,  54. 

Taylor,  Walter,  43,  58. 

Tebbs,  John,  13. 

Tebbs,  Thomas,  13. 

Teegarden,  George,  59. 

Tefft,  Rev.  ,  36. 

Tenth  Ky.  Cavalry,  55. 
Thomas,  John  H.,  36. 
Thomas,  L.  P.,  33. 
Thomas,  Nicholas,  28. 
Thomas,  Samuel,  16. 
Thome,  Arthur,  28. 
Thome,  James  A.,  36. 
Thome,  Robert,  16. 

Thompson,  Dr.  ,  36. 

Thompson,  Edward,  59. 

Thompson,  James  A.,  59. 

Thompson,  John  E.,  7. 

Thorp,  Charles  W.,  36. 

Thorp,  James  L.,  36. 

Todd,  John,  28. 

Toleman,  Edwin,  59. 

Tomlinson,  C.  C,  33. 

Tomlinson,  Dr.  John  N.,  18,  26,  47. 

Tomlinson,  John  F.,  28. 

Tomlinson,  John  G.,  33. 

Tomlinson,  Dr.  Joseph  S.,  26,  43,  47. 

Tomlinson,  W.  C,  33. 

Transylvania  University,  30,  57. 

Tribbey.  George,  36. 

Trimble,  Allen,  27. 

Trimble,  Rev.  Joseph  M.,  27,  43. 

Tripplett,  William,  14. 

Union  College,  ftn.  50,  57. 

Union  Literary  Society,  31,  32,  49. 

Van  Antwerp,  Lewis,  31. 
Vandene,  L.  F.,  34. 
Vandorn,  A.,  33. 

Veach,  Mrs. ,  54. 

Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars,  61. 
Vick,  Osvet  H.,  33. 
Vincent,  John,  27,  36. 
Virginia  Families,  16. 

Wadsworth,  William  H.,  29,  33. 
Walden,  Charles  W.,  36 
Walker,   Stuart,   30. 
Walker,  W.  T.,  33. 
Ward,  Gen.  Durbin,  29. 
Waters,  Barrett,  60. 
Waters,  George  R.,  36. 
Watson,  William,  33. 
Watts,  William,  33. 
Wayland,  William,  36. 
Weber,  Louis,  59. 
Weimer,  George  Sr.,  33. 
Weimer,  Louis,  59. 
Weldon,  James,  53. 
Weldon,  Thomas,  29. 
Weldon,  Vachel,  16,  17,  28,  54. 
Wells,  Francis,  16,  17. 
Wells,  Hayden,  13. 
Wells,  Louis,  53. 
Wells,  Samuel,  13. 
Whetstone,  Richard  A.,  36,  43. 
Whetstone,  Thomas  H.,  29. 

White,  Mr.  ,  48. 

White,  Lt.  George,  53. 

White,  William  R.,  34. 

Whiteman,  Benjamin,  36. 

Whitney,  Alexander  H.,  36. 

Whitney,  Henry  C,  34. 

Williams,  Isaac  Newton,  34. 

Williams,  William  D.,  33. 

Wilson,  Pvt.,  Confederate  soldier,  53. 

Wilson,  J.  R.,  59. 

Wilson,  Thomas  J.,  33. 

Window  shades,  60. 

Winn,  Peter  G.,  36. 

Winter,  John  I.,  59. 

Wittmeier,  Dr.  Joseph,  60. 

Wittmeier,  Len,  59. 

Wittmeier,  William,  59. 

Wolf,  Lewis,  59. 

Wood,  Stephen,  34. 


Augusta  College 

Wood,  Stephen  T.,  36. 
Woods,  Silas,  36. 
Woodward,  William,  17. 
Work,  William,  59. 
Worneweck,  Mrs.  Alfred  C. 
Worthington,  N.  B.,  55. 
Wright,  H.  G.,  ftn.  55. 

Yancy,  G.  M.,  56. 
Young,  Rev.  David,  21. 
Young,  Thomas,  14. 
Yates,  R.  P.,  59. 

Zion's  Advocate  and  Wesleyan  Register, 
1825,  ftn.  22.